20

Solved Past Paper Questions – O Level Guides and Resources

Question: Describe the ways in which the earliest companions started their compilations of Hadis? [10]

Answer: The first period of the compilation of the Ahadis was during Holy Prophet (S.A.W) lifetime. Prophet himself would give instructions about the transmission of what he taught, “Preach what you hear me say. Also let those who see and hear me, take upon themselves to communicate my words to others and preach to their children, relatives and friends.” The Companions had three methods of learning or preservation of the Hadis; memorization, writing, and practice. The companions always tried to observe the actions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W), remember his sayings and then apply what they saw to their own practices in their everyday life.

Abu Hurairah used to write what he heard from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in a book form and more than 5000 Ahadis were attributed to him. Similarly, Hazrat Ali (R.A) had a booklet containing traditions which concerned the orders and instructions from time to time by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (R.A) wrote every word of Holy Prophet (S.A.W)’s speech and more than 2000 Ahadis were attributed to him. Hence during this time more than 10000 Ahadis were collected. Hazrat Aisha (R.A) also used to preserve the sayings of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) likewise Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas was engaged in preserving and transmitting the Ahadis

During this period the companions acted and wrote what the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said individually.

The second period of compilation (101-200 AH) was after the Holy Prophet’s death. New converts wanted to hear about him (S.A.W) and therefore the companions were the first source of information who narrated to their successor (Tabaeen).

Umar bin Abdul Malik gave the official orders that the Ahadis should be compiled. Therefore many scholars prepared many collections of the Ahadis and various methods were adopted in its arrangement. The first method was by tracing them to each companion despite the theme. It is called Masnad, the titles of their chapters are Masnad of Abu Bakr (R.A), Masnad of Abu Hurairah (R.A), Masnad of Hazrat Bibi Aisha (R.A), and the famous compilation by Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal.

The second category was by grouping the Ahadis into chapters and some of the chapters according to their theme. The best non-compilation of this type is Al-Mutah by Imam Malik and Al-Musannaf of Imam Abdul Razaq. The compilers introduced each Ahadis with its own Isnad (series of authorities). But they did not discriminate between the authentic and less authentic Ahadis. So they were mixed up.

Third period (Golden period) (200-300 AH) – The third period begin with the death of the companions. Muslims had to rely on the communication of the successors who narrated to the Taba Ta baeen or successors of the successors. This was the golden age of Ahadis. Reciting and memorizing traditions was considered to be a privilege and soon a great number of them had been collected. Ahadis could be authentic or lesser authentic and so the early authorities included only those Ahadis which they considered to be genuine. The ones suspected to be fabricated were rejected. They said that the text should have no conflict with the Quran or with more reliable Hadis. Isnad must be full and unbroken while the narrators must be known for his memory, piety and knowledge.

The Asol ul-Hadis was already been developed and Ismail Al-Bukhari’s idea to compile the authentic Ahadis through a branch of Asol ul-Hadith called Asma ur-Rijal (to check the chain of Tranmitters) he gathered 600000 of them out of which more than 7000 were added to his work and it took him 16 years to compile. He was followed by number of other scholars such as Imam Muslim ibne Hajaj. The collection by Bukhari and Muslim are held in great esteem and are known as the two Sahihs that is the two collection recognized as absolutely authentic. Abu Daud author of al-Sunan, Al-Tirmizi, author of Al-Jame, Al-Nasai author of al-Sunnah and ibne Majah author of Kitab Al-Sunnah. These four works along with Bukhari and Muslim became widely recognized in the Muslim world as six leading books called Al-Kutub Al-Sitta or the six Sahihs.

In the last period many other scholars compiled new collections. Their contents were taken from the six books and arranged in various ways until it was felt that all the Ahadis circulating orally introduced to writing. Hence the Hadis literature became exceedingly rich and finally came to the state as we know it today. It is guide for all Muslims.

Q: What are the conditions of prayers (Salat) that must be fulfilled before performing them? [10]


Answer: As prayer (Salah) is the second pillar of Islam. It begins with the purification of the body and ends with the purification of the soul. The prayers (Salah) performed five times a day and the night which are Fajr (at dawn), Zuhr (afternoon), Asr (midafternoon), Maghrib (sunset) and Isha (nightfall). Prayer may be considered as an energizing charge man needs to stand in the remembrance of his Rabb. In order to renew the contact with his Rabb, the first think the men starts off his day with his prayer. As the Holy Quran says: “When you have finished As-Salat (the prayer – congregational), remember Allah standing, sitting down, and lying down on your sides, but when you are free from danger, perform As-Salat (Iqâmatas Salat) Verily, the prayer is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours” (An-Nisa 4:103) Man move from one prayer to another until he meets with his Rabb. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said: “if there is a river by a house of one

leave anything of his dirt”. He said: that is similar to 5 prayers by which Allah (SWT) annals sins” (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Sahih AL-Muslim). And Allah says in the Holy Quran: “And seek help through patience and prayers” (Al-Quran). 
To perform prayer there are certain conditions that a person have to fulfill before offering the prayers. These conditions are that person should wear clean cloths and body must be clean from all impurities. They have to cover the Satar as well as the women: All Muslims that is male are required to cover what is between the navel and the knee at Salah. But women should cover the whole body except their faces and hands. Tight (not transparent) cloths are accepted but lose ones are preferable. Person must perform ablution with the intentions of Salah for which he or she are performing the Wuzu. The place where he or she is going to pray must be clean as Allah says in the Holy Quran: “O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salat (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles. If you are in a state of Janâba (i.e. had a sexual discharge), purify yourself (bath your whole body)………” (5:6) 
After performing Wuzu and standing at clean place for prayer, a Muslim should orientate himself or herself towards the point of adoration that is the Holy Kaabah in the city of Makkah: “……So turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid- al-Haram (at Makkah). And wheresoever’s you people are, turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction…….” (2:144). After this the worshipper make intention for prayer and starts his Salah…… As the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) said: “Intention is compulsory for all deeds” (Sahih Sitha) (Sahih Sitha).


Question: Describe the use of Quran in legal thinking as the fundamental source of Islam? [10]
Answer: The last Holy Book from Allah the Quran sends to His last messenger Holy Prophet (S.A.W) for the whole mankind.
The Holy Quran is the first primary source of law in Islamic Legal thinking and Islamic law. It is the fundamental source from which all principals, ordinances and injunctions of Islam are drawn. The Quran is a perfect book. It is the book of guidance as it offers a complete code of life covering all dimensions of human life i.e, economic , political , religious , social , legal and moral etc as the Quran says: ” This is the book : in it is guidance sure without doubt those fear Allah ” (2:2) . The Quran prescribed for us as a code of life by the Shariah of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) it is a Book lying down basic framework and outlines to all kinds of laws as the Quran says: ” Surely , we have send down to you [O Muhammad (S.A.W)] the book [this Quran] in truth that you might judge between men by that which Allah has shown you (that is has taught you throw divine inspiration) , so we not pleader for the treacherous ” (4:105) . The injunctions of the Quran are the basis of the Islamic Shariah. This law is perfect and comprehensive. It governs all the actions of the Muslims. It recognizes the failure of human nature and hence it does not lay undue burden on him, as Allah says “Allah does not charge a soul with more than it can bear” (2:286). Some of the important laws in Quran as the main source of law that tells us how the Quran guides us on deciding our matters are:
A)If a person dies and leaves behind wealth for his children, it must be divided up among his children according to laws and regulations which Allah has established for us in the holy Quran “Allah decree concerning your children as son will have a share equivalent to that of two daughters. If the female left behind are more than two, than for them is two-third of the inheritance. But if there is only one female then to her a half ….” (4:11) 
B) For those who steal, the Quran says ” As for the thief, man or woman, cut of the hand of either of them: it is the recompense for what they have earned ………” (5:38).
C)An Islamic economy is free of interest. Islam prohibits all transactions following interest. Interest is a means of exploitation and concentration of wealth. It is in the Holy Quran “Those who swallow usury will stand up only like the one who stands up, whom devil has deranged by touch. That is because they say “trading is also just like usury, Allah has permitted trading and forbidden usury” (2:275)
D) The teachings of the Holy Quran relating to religious teachings Allah says “And be steadfast in prayer, practice charity. “(2:243). 
E)Relating ones purity is an obligatory duty in the eyes of Allah (SWT) none should commit it. The holy Holly Quran gives us the law regarding those who commit Adultery, as Quran says “the women or man guilty of adultery flog each of them with hundred stripes” (24:2)
F) Marriage is the basis of the Islamic family and a good and sound society can grow only if a man and women are bound in a pure relation to the sacred contract of marriage. The Quran guides us, the Holy Quran says, “Marry not a woman, who’s your father married except what has already passed. Surely this was an indecency and a hateful act and an evil way …….” (4:22-23) 
G) Islam forbids abortion, as the holy Quran says ” kill not your children in the dread of poverty, He provide for both, Killing them is a great blunder indeed” (17:31)
H) Some complications arise when one conducts a serious business with somebody and documentation is ignored. In the Quran, there are rules on this issue so that we might not fall into any doubts as the Quran says: “Oh, believers! When you contract a debt for a fixed period, then write it down between, let some scribe write down between you justly………..” (2:283)
So the Holy Quran is the final and complete message of Allah. It is complete because it covers all facets and provides guidance for all aspects of life. As Allah says in the Holy Quran: “Neither anything wet nor dry that is not contained in this luminous book.” (The Holy Quran)

 

Question: Describe the 4 main sources of the legal thinking in Islam? [10]
Answer: The divine revelation (the Holy Quran) is the first basic primary source in Islamic law. It is the most authentic, comprehensive book contains laws of all spheres regarding to Islam. In the holy Quran Allah says “This is the book in it is guidance without doubt to those who fear” (2:2) it is the direct word of Allah hence its purity is doubtless. It’s clear teachings in Islamic legal thinking are followed without questions as Quran exist in its original form as Allah says in the Holy Quran “We have without doubt revealed the reminder and we will guard it” (15:9) The Holy Quran is a primary source containing all the fundamental directives and instructions of Allah including the principals relating to all the aspects of social and cultural life of human being individually and in whole community. The Quran is the last and complete edition of divine guidance and this is the only book of Allah which is not been distorted.
The second primary source of legal thinking in Islam is Sunnah. It comes next to the Quran. Sunnah literally means the sayings and actions of Prophet (S.A.W) or approval of actions of others by him. Sunnah is used when teachings of the Quran is not in the detail form but is summarized or when Quran is silent. Than the legislation may solely be derived from the Sunnah as Allah says in the Holy Quran “Nor does he speak of his own desire and he follows whatever been inspired to him and revealed to him” (Al-Najum). For example Muslims are commanded to pray Salat and pay Zakat but it is not mentioned in the Holy Quran that how to pry and how much to offer Zakat, it’s the Sunnah of the Prophet (S.A.W) that gave a clear description of such laws pertaining to Zakat and Prayer as Holy Prophet (S.A.W) himself said “Pray as you see me offering prayers” (Sahih Bukhari).
Ijma is the third source of Islamic legal thinking. In the terminology of religion Ijma means consensus of the companions of the Prophet (S.A.W) or Muslim jurists of a particular age, on a question of law. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said “Gather together the righteous from among my community and decide the matter with their council and do not decide it by any man’s opinion” (Abu Daud). Ijma of the scholars signifies the importance of the legislation in the Muslim community. Ijma is considered as sufficient evidence for the implementation of the Islamic law because Prophet (S.A.W) himself said “My community will not agree unanimously on an error” (Tirmizi). The best example of Ijma is that when Holy Prophet (S.A.W) consulted his companions about matters that were not concerned with religion like Ijma for the battle of Uhad, because Allah commanded him to do that. “Take council with them in the conduct of affairs.” (3:139).
Qiyas is the fourth source of Islamic legal thinking. Qiyas is an analogical deduction from the above three sources of law. It basically resorted in respect of problems about which there is no specific provision in the Holy Quran or Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). In case when something needs a legal ruling but has not been clearly addressed in other Islamic sources, judges may use (Islamic Scholars) analogy, reasoning and legal precedent to decide new case when a general principal can be applied to new situation e.g. the scholars have developed detailed principals of analogical deduction or Qiyas in the book of Islamic laws. The Prophet (S.A.W) reported to have encouraged Qiyas in his lifetime. When Holy Prophet (S.A.W) was sending Mauz bin Jabal (R.A) as the governor of Syria/Yemen. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) asked him “How will you decide when a matter comes to you for decision?” He replied “I shall decide according to the book of Allah.” The Prophet (S.A.W) again said that “If you did not find it in the book of Allah?” Mauz (R.A) replied “Than I will decide according to the Sunnah of the Prophet (S.A.W).” If you find nothing in there? Holy Prophet (S.A.W) asked. Hazrat Mauz (R.A) replied “Than I will exert myself for my own judgment.” (Tirmizi & Abu Daud)

 

Question: How have the Sunnah/Hadis of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) being used as a source of guidance by the Muslims in Islamic Legal thinking?
Answer: “……..Whoever obeys Allah and His messenger that is a great achievement? (33:70-71)” The best of speech is the speech of Allah. That is The Book of Allah. The best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (S.A.W). The Qur’an was revealed to him and commanded him to obey all what He had ordered him to do, that is, to expound His message to the people. Allah says, “We have revealed to you the Reminder (The Qur’an) to expound to people what was revealed to them” (16:44). The explanation of the meaning of the word or sentence or verse for which man needs an explanation, most of which bear reference to ‘Mujmal’ (comprehensive) verses or ‘Amah’ (general) verses or ‘Mutlaq’ (unbounded) verses. Then comes the Sunnah and clarifies the sentences and specifies the verses called ‘Amah’ and defines what is ‘Mutlaq’ that is, in reference to the saying (Qaul) of The Prophet (S.A.W), his deed (Fai’l) and the act he confirmed (Iqrar). The necessity of Sunnah to understand The Qur’an and its Parables, for example Allah says: “Cut off the hand of the thief, male or female, as a recompense for that which they committed……..” (5:38) is a fitting example of that. The thief in this verse is general like the hand. The oral tradition explains the first of them and restricts it by ‘as-‘sareq’ (the thief) who steals is worth a fourth of a Dinar or more (Bukhari & Muslim). Again, the other is explained by the action of the Prophet (S.A.W) or the action of his companions and his confirmation. They used to cut the hand of the thief from the wrist as is known in the work of Hadis.
The oral tradition explains the hand mentioned in the verse on Tayammum (dust ablution) “…..And rub there on your face and hands……….” (5:6) is also the palm of the hand as it is stated in a Hadis Tayammum, is the wiping of the face and the hands. (Bukhari; Muslim)
There are other verses that cannot be completely understood except through Sunnah. Like:
Allah says: “When you travel on earth, there is no blame on you to shorten your prayer, for fear the unbelievers will persecute you.” (4:101) it is obvious from this verse that fear is a pre-requisite for the shortening of prayers. Some of the Prophet’s companions asked him: “Why do we shorten our prayers while we feel safe?” He said: It is a charity from Allah, so accept it (Muslim).
Allah says: “……. Any (food) forbidden to be taken by one who wishes to, unless it is dead meat or blood poured forth or the flesh of swine, for it is an abomination………” (6:145).
The Sunnah has forbidden many things not mentioned in the verse mentioned above, as for example in the saying of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) like:
As the Prophet (S.A.W) is reported to have said on the Day of Khyber, “Allah and His Messenger have prohibited the consumption of domesticated donkeys, for they are filth.” (Bukhari; Muslim)
We can see the importance attached to Sunnah in Islamic Law. When we divert our intention again to the examples mentioned beside others not mentioned, we are certain that there is no way to understand the Qur’an correctly except in association with the interpretation of the Sunnah. As The Prophet (S.A.W) said: “I leave behind me two things. You will never go astray if you hold fast to them: The Qur’an and my Sunnah.” (Bukhari)

 

Q1. Describe how was quran revealed to Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) between 610 and 632 A.D?
Answer: Essential to learning the history of the Quran is the study of the stages of its revelation, which is usually referred to by the term “‘Tanzeel’ of the Quran”, literally, the descent or the ‘sending down’ of the Quran from the Heavens to the Earth. The Quran was brought by Jibreel from the Preserved Tablet (in the Seventh Heaven) down to the First Heaven (sky) and placed in the ‘Place of Power or Honor’. First, the Quran mentions the Preserved Tablets in the verse (which means): “Nay! This is a Glorious Quran, inscribed in a Preserved Tablet” [85:21-22] then it tells of the fact that it was sent down during a specific night, in the verse (which means): “We have indeed sent down this during the Night of Power.” [Quran 97:1].

They Quran is the literal word of Allah which was revealed to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in the time span of 23 years, Allah Almighty Says about the Holy Quran (what means): ” (It is) a Quran which We have divided (into parts from time to time), in order that thou (O Muhammad) might recite it to people at intervals: We have revealed it by stages (in 23 years).” [Quran 17:106]. In Arabic ‘wahi’ means the spontaneous message made known through divine inspiration. The Prophet (S.A.W) received revelations through different modes through angel Jibrael (A.S). The surahs (chapters) revealed in Makkah are generally brief but powerful they deal with Tawheed (oneness of Allah) , Prophet Hood, the Hereafter etc, whereas the surahs revealed in Madinah are long and detailed with a bit softness in tone. They deal with the laws covering all the aspects of human life including Jihad.
The Holy Quran was not revealed to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) all at once but sporadically with the different types of revelation like in 610 A.D in the cave of Hira when the Archangel Jibrael (A.S) delivered the first revelation to Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in the form of man. This was the most common way of receiving revelation. The Prophet (S.A.W) himself narrates the experience: “He seized me and squeezed me to such an extent that I was exhausted” (Sahih Bukhari). The angel repeated the action thrice and for the third time he said: “Recite, in the name of thy Lord who created. Created man with a clot of congealed blood, Recite and your Lord is most bountiful. Who has taught the use of pen and taught man that which he knew not” (96:1-5) .This is the form of receiving revelation directly into the heart of Prophet (S.A.W). Another form is through angel Jibrael (A.S) in his true angelic form. According to Hazrat Abdullah ibne Masood the Prophet (S.A.W) said: “When I (S.A.W) angel Jibrael (A.S) he had 316 wings covering the entire east and the west” (Sahih Bukhari). Sometimes the revelation would disclose upon the ringing of the bell. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) once narrated to Hazrat Bibi Ayesha (R.A): “Sometimes revelation comes to after a bell ringing and that is a heavy time for me” (Sahih Bukhari) This was the most difficult of the forms of revelation for the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) to bear, if he was mounted on a camel and received such kind of revelation, his companions and the animal he was riding could feel the bodily change and the weight of his body. Sometimes the Prophet (S.A.W) would receive the revelation through dreams which would come true the next morning. For example the events of the battle of Uhud were seen by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) the day before it took place. The Prophet (S.A.W) only for once directly received the revelation from Allah in the ascension. The messenger of Allah received the revelation about the obligatory five daily prayers in this form. It is interesting to know how the differing methods of communication which started from 610 A.D reached their climatic end in 632 A.D at the mount Arafat where Allah revealed the last verses of the Holy Quran during the last sermon: “This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed may favours upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion” (5:3)

 

Question: How have the Hadiths of the Holy Prophet (S) been used as a source of guidance by Muslims? [10]
Ans: For the purification and guidance of Muslim’s minds and souls the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) issued many instructions and commandments. They helped one to have a clear view of other fellow beings, characters and eradicate evil thoughts. People with evil and ambitious thoughts can never work for the peace, pleasure, satisfaction and wellbeing of others. Good will only comes forth from such minds which are guided and committed to welfare or humans. However, in deserving the following injunctions of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) his or her actions must benefit the society. The Holy Quran defines the roll of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) in elaborating the teachings of the Holy Quran when it says:“………..And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad SAW) the reminder and the advice (the Qur’an), that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them, and that they may give thought.” (16:44) Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) himself conscious of his mortality, attached a great deal of importance to the knowledge of his own Hadis. The Hadis lay down guide lines to govern Human behavior in manner which is appropriate to the way of life which Allah (S.W.T) desires for an individual to lead. They provide directives for even the most minor aspects of human life e.g. what a Muslim recites when he sneezes; start eating, look in the mirror, drinks milk etc. The most brilliant thing about the Hadis is the way they cover the vast dimensions of human life, suggesting appropriate ways to structure, ones thoughts and actions. Hadis not only provide directions but also mention rewards and punishments to those particular actions to encourage conformity and discourage disobedience. “The one who looks after a widow or a poor person is like a Mujahid (warrior) who fights for Allah’s cause or like him who perform prayers all the night and fasts all day” (Sahih Al-Bukhari) 
The teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) not only guides individuals how to act, but also establish a system of believes which go in line with the teachings of the Holy Quran. Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) elaborates the beliefs pertaining to Tawheed, the finality of his Prophet Hood, Articles of Faith, Pillars of Islam etc. He guides us to think of the welfare of other members of the society; to avoid considering other fellow beings with inferiority; to think of one’s self as a humble servant of Allah (S.W.T) to keep the mind clean from all corrupt ideas, to base all our actions on noble intentions etc. Since Islam does not only provide knowledge of virtue and evil, but also provide the application of its system of values and beliefs in the form of appropriate norms, therefore Hadis play a significant to modify an individual’s approach towards life in all thoughts and actions.

 

Question: Explain how the Quran is related with Ijma and Qiyas? [10]
Answer: The divine revelation (the Holy Quran) is the first basic primary source in Islamic law. It is the most authentic, comprehensive book contains laws of all spheres regarding to Islam. In the holy Quran Allah says “This is the book in it is guidance without doubt to those who fear” (2:2) it is the direct word of Allah hence its purity is doubtless. It’s clear teachings in Islamic legal thinking are followed without questions as Quran exist in its original form as Allah says in the Holy Quran “We have without doubt revealed the reminder and we will guard it” (15:9) The Holy Quran is a primary source containing all the fundamental directives and instructions of Allah including the principals relating to all the aspects of social and cultural life of human being individually and in whole community. The Quran is the last and complete edition of divine guidance and this is the only book of Allah which is not been distorted.
Ijma is the third source of Islamic legal thinking. In the terminology of religion Ijma means consensus of the companions of the Prophet (S.A.W) or Muslim jurists of a particular age, on a question of law as the Quran says: “Take council with them in the conduct of affairs.” (3:139).
The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said “Gather together the righteous from among my community and decide the matter with their council and do not decide it by any man’s opinion” (Abu Daud). Ijma of the scholars signifies the importance of the legislation in the Muslim community. Ijma is considered as sufficient evidence for the implementation of the Islamic law because Prophet (S.A.W) himself said “My community will not agree unanimously on an error” (Tirmizi). The best example of Ijma is that when Holy Prophet (S.A.W) consulted his companions about matters that were not concerned with religion like Ijma for the battle of Uhad, because Allah commanded him to do that.
Qiyas is the fourth source of Islamic legal thinking. Qiyas is an analogical deduction from the above three sources of law. It basically resorted in respect of problems about which there is no specific provision in the Holy Quran or Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). In case when something needs a legal ruling but has not been clearly addressed in other Islamic sources, judges may use (Islamic Scholars) analogy, reasoning and legal precedent to decide new case when a general principal can be applied to new situation e.g. the scholars have developed detailed principals of analogical deduction or Qiyas in the book of Islamic laws. The Prophet (S.A.W) reported to have encouraged Qiyas in his lifetime. When Holy Prophet (S.A.W) was sending Mauz bin Jabal (R.A) as the governor of Syria/Yemen. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) asked him “How will you decide when a matter comes to you for decision?” He replied “I shall decide according to the book of Allah.” The Prophet (S.A.W) again said that “If you did not find it in the book of Allah?” Mauz (R.A) replied “Than I will decide according to the Sunnah of the Prophet (S.A.W).” If you find nothing in there, Holy Prophet (S.A.W) asked? Hazrat Mauz (R.A) replied “Than I will exert myself for my own judgment.” (Tirmizi & Abu Daud)

 

Question: What is Qiyas? How it is use as a source of legal thinking in Islamic law with the relation of Holy Quran? [10]
Answer: Qiyas is the fourth source of Islamic law and second secondary source of Islamic law. The root meaning of the word Qiyas is ‘Accord’, measuring, and equality. In the Islamic Legal sense Qiyas is a process of deduction by which the law of text is applied to cases, which tough not covered by the language, are covered by the reason of the next, when clarification of a certain matter or issue is not available in the Holy Quran, the Sunnah or previous Ijma, than an expert jurist (Mujtahids) can carry out Qiyas. The Qiyas must not be based on arbitrary judgment, but rather be firmly rooted in the primary sources that are the Quran and the Sunnah. The Holy Quran has recognized the exercise of private judgment (Qiyas) in surah Al-Araf verse number 179. Allah saysin the Holy Quran: “……..Take warning than, O you with eyes (to see)” (59:2)! At another place in the Holy Quran Allah recognized the use of Qiyas as Allah says “There are signs in this for people who understand” (Al-Quran). 
Supporters of Qiyas may often point to passages in the Quran that describes an application of a similar process by passed Islamic communities. According to the sayings of Prophet (S.A.W) “Where there is no revealed injunction I will judge amongst you according to reason. Further he extended the right to reason to others.” (Sahih Bukhari). Finally Qiyas is sanctioned by the Ijma or consensus amongst Prophet Muhammad’s (S.A.W) companions. As the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said that every Khumar (wine) is an intoxicant, so Khumar is Haram. With the due course of changing time, culture, societies and traditions brought new problems law to tackle e.g. Opium or Mari Juana, LSD, Cocaine which were not there when laws for the use of wine came into being so according to the sayings of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) that every Khumar is Haram so Muslim jurists with the very comprehensive study of the first two primary sources and Ijma they gave their own logical deduction verdict that these things are also Haram because they also cause Khumar.

 

Question: What is the importance of Hadith in Islamic teachings? [10]

Answer: The two fundamental sources of Islam are the Quran (the word of God) and the Sunnah (the example) of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). By Sunnah, we mean the actions, sayings and silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Prophet.

The word “Sunnah” is also used to refer to religious duties that are optional. Here, we are concerned with Sunnah in the sense of the recorded sayings (Hadiths) of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). In this sense, Hadith is considered to be second to the Quran. It is impossible to understand the Quran without reference to the Hadith; and it is impossible to explain a hadith without relating it to the Quran. The Quran is the message, while the Hadith is the verbal translation of the message into pragmatic terms, as exemplified by the Prophet. While the Quran is the metaphysical basis of the Sunnah, the Sunnah is the practical demonstration of the precepts laid down in the Qur’an. The duty of the Messenger was not just to communicate the message; rather, he was entrusted with the most important task of explaining and illustrating that message. That is the reason why Allah Himself has commanded the following: “Say: Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he (the Prophet) is only responsible for the duty placed on him (i.e. to convey Allah’s Message) and you for that placed on you. If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger’s duty is only to convey (the message) in a clear way” (An-Nur 24:54) this verse clearly tells us the overriding importance of Hadith to Muslims. They should be eager to learn and follow the teachings of the Prophet as expressed in Hadith. If we are negligent in this respect, it is we who have to answer before Allah. Speaking of the importance of Hadith, we need to take into consideration two broad aspects of the subject. We know that Allah Almighty revealed the Quran to His chosen Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). So it is through the Prophet we come to hear the word of Allah; and it is the Prophet himself who can properly explain and demonstrate the precepts in the Quran. Without the required explanations and illustrations given by the Prophet, the Quran may be misunderstood and misinterpreted by people. So the Prophet took care to explain and demonstrate to his companions how the Quranic verses must be read and understood. That is to say, the importance of Hadith is linked to the importance of the Quran.

For example, the details of how to perform salah (ritual prayer), for instance, were given by the Prophet through his words and action, and not by the Quran. This means that we wouldn’t know how to pray, fast, pay zakah, or perform Hajj without the examples given by the Prophet as recorded in the Hadith. Indeed, all necessary details are given in the Hadith, not in the Quran.The revelation of each of the verses of the Quran took place at some critical junctures in the life of the Prophet. Of course, there are verses of universal application and significance, irrespective of the context in which those verses were revealed. But there are other verses that can be understood or interpreted only in the light of the actual context in the life of the Prophet, which called for that revelation. There are many examples. For instance, the following verse in the Surah Aali `Imran: “If any one disputes in this matter with thee, now after (full) knowledge hath come to thee, Say: Come! Let us gather together, our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and

norms, therefore Hadis play a significant to modify an individual’s approach towards life in all

Holy Prophet is called “mercy for all creatures” The Prophet encouraged his followers to keep alive the spirit of mercy and compassion so that they get entitled to God’s mercy in the Hereafter. None can more ill- fated than the one who gets deprived of God’s mercy. “We sent thee not, but as a mercy for all creatures.” (21:107).

The Muslims are required to follow the footsteps of the Prophet who never cursed his enemies and insulters in Makka, Taif and the battlefield. In the battle of Uhud, when some companion asked him

As far as the particular believe in the books of Allah, we must believe in books or scriptures that are mentions in the Holy Quran by name. They are the Sahifas (scrolls) of Hazrat Ibrahim (A.S) mentioned in the Holy Quran in Surah Al-Ala verse number 19. The Torah of Hazrat Musa (A.S)

in the Iman-e-Mufassal which says ‘’I believe in Allah, in His angels, in His books, in His

Divine Will)’’ (36:40). These are demonstrations of Allah’s unlimited power and

 

 

Q: What is the main feature of the Muslims belief in the Unity and oneness of Allah? [10]

Answer: Our creed is to believe in Allah because faith in the existence of God is a natural disposition in man. Everything existent in a definite order as a maker to it, if we ponder over the universe, surveying all that it contains, we certainly will realize that it did not came into existence as a matter of chance; it must have a creator to it. Islam demands all human beings to believe in that creator as one Allah. As the Holy Quran says: “……It is righteousness to believe in Allah and His Holy Prophet (S.A.W)……” (2:177). It abolishes the concept of trinity, as well as the worship of other God besides or along with Allah (SWT). Even the most intelligent of the minds cannot form a definite and a true perception of Allah (SWT) pertaining to His characteristics other than what have been defined by Allah (SWT) and His Prophet (S.A.W). As Allah says in the Holy Quran: “Say (O Muhammad (S.A.W)): “He is Allah, (the) One. Allah-us-Samad (The Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, He neither eats nor drinks). He begets not, nor was He begotten; and there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him” (112:1-4). He is one divine power Who is far beyond the perception of human mind. Allah’s knowledge surpasses all what is possessed by His creatures. As the Holy Quran says “……And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills………” (2:255) He has created everything in unique precision and order, and there is no other creator but Him. Allah’s supernatural attributes include His eternalness, His matchless power, His supreme knowledge, His grace, compassion, forgiveness and mercy etc. Allah is independent of all needs, while everything he created is depended upon Him. With regards to Allah’s limitless power and supreme knowledge the Quran says “……… He creates what He wills. And it is He Who is the All-knowing, the All-powerful (i.e. Able to do all things)……….” (30:54-55) and again in Surah Anaam it says “And with Him are the keys of the Ghaib (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in (or on) the earth and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but he knows it………” (6:59) All the natural and divine characteristics of Allah (SWT) are only possessed by Him, thus perfecting the concept of Unity and oneness of Allah (SWT) He created mankind to worship Him of which only He is worthy to. The divine Principle of creation necessitates that beliefs have authority over physical activities; consequently the corruption of such activities arises from the corruption of beliefs themselves. The Holy Quran says: “No son (or offspring or children) did Allah beget, nor is there any ilâh (god) along with Him; (if there had been many gods), behold, each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others!” (23:91) His bei

 

Question: Discuss the most important feature of the Quran teaching you have studied about oneness of Allah [Tauheed]? [10] 
Answer: A Muslim believes in One God, Supreme and Eternal, Infinite and Mighty, Merciful and Compassionate, Creator and Provider. As, Allah says in surah Al-Baqarah: “Allah! There is no god but him, the living, the self-subsisting, eternal……” (2:255).
Faith in the existence of God is a natural disposition in man. Everything existent in the definite order or arrangement has a maker to it. If man ponders over the universe, surveying all that it contains, he certainly will come to realize that it did not come into existence as a matter of chance; Islam demands that all human beings to belief in that creator as One Allah. The most concise expression of the nature of Allah has been delivered by Surah Ikhlas which says:
“He is Allah, the one and only. Allah, the Eternal, Absolute. He begets not, nor is He begotten. And there is none like unto Him.”(112:1-4). in Surah Ikhlas Allah has described the four basic merits of lordship; one, never ending, single and incomparable. The existence of Allah is confirmed when we ponder over the universe that such an organized and well-coordinated world , would not come to existence on its own as the Quran says “Is there a doubt about Allah the creator of heavens and the earth ?” (14:10). 
He is God of all mankind, not of a special tribe or race. Allah has no weaknesses like human beings and He guard the whole universe without any helper. His knowledge is perfect and no one can interfere in His domain as the Quran says“……… Nor slumber can seize Him, nor sleep. His are all things in the heavens and the earth………” (2:255)
It’s only Allah who makes harmonious and systemic arrangements of the universe on account of His Will.
As the Quran says: “To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth………..” (2:117) 
Further the Holy Quran says “There is no other guardian of the creation in the heavens and the earth, and He does not associate anyone with Himself in His authority.”(18:26) 
Allah’s nature is so subtle and fine, far beyond from our conceptions so as to be invisible to the physical eye and imperceptible in the present senses. His presence can only be felt through manifestation of His attributes as the Quran says“No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all visions …..”(6:103).

 

Question: Explain the significance of Quran being revealed over a period of time. 
Answer:
 The Quran was revealed in stages over a period of 23 years, and not as a complete book in one single act of revelation. There is wisdom and a number of reasons for this, Mankind have not made so much progress over fifteen hundred years as it did over the period 23 years of the prophet hood of Muhammad (S.A.W). The period of 23 years was necessary for those who lived at that time to understand, interiorize and apply the Revelation easily. The Quran instituted a great deal of change, through prohibitions and commands and through new reforms of the deepest consequence. However, it established all of them in stages over time, as the need for guidance arose, without discouraging, or grinding down morale: warning and condemnation preceded prohibition; appeal and exhortation preceded command. For instance, intoxicating drinks were prohibited in three or four stages; burying girls alive in two stages; uniting warring tribes, and building up a close-knit society based on brotherhood and thus raising the collective consciousness in a couple of stages. These difficult reforms were not gestured at or expressed in slogans they were achieved. The believers needed this period to reform and so become reformers.

 

Question: From the Quranic passages you have studied about Allah’s creation, outline the relationship between Allah and His Messengers? [10]
Answer: According to the Quran, all the apostles and prophets sent by Allah were men, had wives and children and were mortal. According to a tradition of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W), their number is said to be 124,000. They are Allah’s vicegerents on earth they don’t do Shirk. They have been granted special favors, miracles and great knowledge by Allah as Allah says: “We did indeed send before you Messengers to their (respective) people, and they came to them with clear signs.” (30:47). they must follow His instructions and their focus is towards Allah only. The Quran says that Allah sent a Warner and guide to every nation. Number of surah gives narrations of His selected Messengers and many surahs are named after the messengers like They include Nuh (71), Ibrahim (14), Hud (11), Yusuf (12), Younus (10) and Muhammad (47).. 
They are very intelligent they recognize Allah very well through His Signs like in surah Anam’s verses 75 to 79Abraham was gradually guided to identify the real Creator and Lord by way of His creations such as the sun the moon and the stars. 
In Surah Baqara verse 30 to 37 was about the beginning of the line is Hazrat Adam, who was also the first human being. Allah bestowed prophet hood on him and gave him guidance for himself and his descendants. We sent Noah to his People (with the Command): “Do warn your people before there come to them a grievous Penalty” (Quran).There is also a description of special Prophetic sign granted to them like Musa, Isa and others.
About Hazrat Musa the Quran states: “Move your hand into your bosom, and it will come forth white without stain.” (Surah al-Qasas) About Jesus the Quran says: “……….And behold! You make out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by my leave, and you breathe into it and it becomes a bird by my leave, and you heal those born blind, and the lepers, by my leave” (Surah Al-Maida). Most importantly, the Quran declares the finality of the Holy Prophet by terming him as the “seal of Prophets” in this verse: “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things” (Ahzab: 40)

 

Question: Outline the changes in the Prophets Relation with the JEWS tribe and the HYPORICTE in Medina in the year between 622 and 632 A.D?
Answer: Relation with the Jews
The drastic changes in relation in between Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W), Jews and Hypocrite were because of the fact that the Prophet (S.A.W) had made every sincere effort to make friend with Jews he gave them the liberty and freedom to live freely. He also declared the Jews and the Muslims as a single Ummah by granting them religious liberty and equal status in chatter of Medina and by declaring them as people of the book. The Jews did not reciprocate and never accepted the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) and never accepted the Prophet hoodof Holy Prophet (S.A.W).
During earlier days after Hijra Jews tried to exploit Islam by promoting their own interest, but Muslims victory of Badr frestrataed them a lot. So they had religious, social economic and political reason to remain hostile towards Islam because they could not digest the idea that a non-Jew Prophet was of their religion and from amongst their tribe. The main hostility was shown by Banu Quraiza, Banu Qunaiqa and Banu Nazir. The monitoring position of Banu Qunaqa was detoriated when Muslims turned against them after the verses against ‘Reba’ were revealed and the alliance of Banu Qunaiqa and hypocrite (under Abdullah Bin Ubey) were also cooperative in making Muslims turned against Jews in 624 A.D.
The economic interest of Banu Nazir and Banu Quraiza as they hold on agricultural land increased after the arrival of Mahajreen in Medina, so the Jews would not take the arrival of Muslims from Mecca all the three tribes of Jews were expelled out of Medina as they broke the pledge in which they were required to act in accordance to the term of agreement they had made with Muhammad (S.A.W) because they lost no time conspiring with the Quraish against Muslims and ploting the killing of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) by Banu Nazir and treason of Banu Quraiza during the battle of Trenche which posed threat to the survival and to the growth of Islam so the Holy Muhammad (S.A.W) punished them by expulsing them out of Medina in 624 A.D and 625 A.D respectively.
Similarly, with the passage of time Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) realized that they did not respect his position as a Prophet and Jews use to find faults in Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) and his teaching of Islam. Usually they mocked the Muslims for adapting Jerusalem as their Kiblah and for sharing other religious rights of Jews such as ‘Ashura Fast’. They miss pronounce the Quranic verses with the intentions of changing their meaning. Relation between them and the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) continue to worsen.

Relation with the Hypocrite: 
Similarly as for Hypocrites the Prophet (S.A.W) had different situation, which he had to face in Medina was immense then opposion he faced in Mecca. In Medina Prophet (S.A.W) had to face enemies in disguise. The disguise enemies are the hypocrite who had apparently accepted Islam but were enemies of the core of their hearts. For them Holy Quran says: “And you see those in whose hearts there is a disease (of hypocrisy), they hurry to their friendship, saying: “We fear lest some misfortune of a disaster may befall us……..” (5:52). Abdullah bin Ubey the leader of hypocrites and the leader of Banu Khajraz, during the first five years of Hijra he was engaged in weakening the position of Prophet’s (S.A.W) by verbal arguments and by criticizing the Quran the worse thing which Abdullah Bin Ubey did was In the battle of Uhad where he abandent the Prophet (S.A.W) and took his 300 men back to Medina. All his life he left no stone unturned in damaging the Muslims through conspiring, mechanizing and plotting against Muslims. Some times with the Quraish some time with the Jews. He was the one who even made malignant effort of scandalizing the Prophets (S.A.W) wife Hazrat Aisha (R.A) until her innocence was declared by Allah in Quranic verses. The attitude of Prophet (S.A.W) although was changed but not was very strict the major reason for this liniancy was that if he had taken punitive action against them, his repute might have been damaged, for turning against his own people. So he acted in a wise way which was let them die their own death.The holy Quran says: “of the people there are some who say: we believe in Allah and in the last Day;’ but they do not (really) believe………..” (Surah: Baqarah v: 8:9)

 

Question: Give an account of how the Quran is used in relationship with the 3 other sources of law for legal thinking. “[10]
Answer: The Holy Quran is the first primary source of law in Islamic Legal thinking and Islamic law. It is the fundamental source from which all principals, ordinances and injunctions of Islam are drawn. The Quran is a perfect book. It is the book of guidance as it offers a complete code of life covering all dimensions of human life i.e, economic , political , religious , social , legal and moral etc as the Quran says: ” This is the book : in it is guidance sure without doubt those fear Allah ” (2:2) .The Quran prescribed for us as a code of life by the Shariah of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) it is a Book lying down basic framework and outlines to all kinds of laws as the Quran says: ” Surely , we have send down to you [O Muhammad (S.A.W)] the book [this Quran] in truth that you might judge between men by that which Allah has shown you (that is has taught you throw divine inspiration) , so we not pleader for the treacherous ” (4:105) . The injunctions of the Quran are the basis of the Islamic Shariah. This law is perfect and comprehensive. It governs all the actions of the Muslims. It recognizes the failure of human nature and hence it does not lay undue burden on him, as Allah says “Allah does not charge a soul with more than it can bear” (2:286).

“……..Whoever obeys Allah and His messenger that is a great achievement? (33:70-71)”The best of speech is the speech of Allah. That is The Book of Allah. The best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (S.A.W). The Qur’an was revealed to him and commanded him to obey all what He had ordered him to do, that is, to expound His message to the people. Allah says, “We have revealed to you the Reminder (The Qur’an) to expound to people what was revealed to them” (16:44). The explanation of the meaning of the word or sentence or verse for which man needs an explanation, most of which bear reference to ‘Mujmal’ (comprehensive) verses or ‘Amah’ (general) verses or ‘Mutlaq’ (unbounded) verses. Then comes the Sunnah and clarifies the sentences and specifies the verses called ‘Amah’ and defines what is ‘Mutlaq’ that is, in reference to the saying (Qaul) of The Prophet (S.A.W), his deed (Fai’l) and the act he confirmed (Iqrar). The necessity of Sunnah to understand The Qur’an and its Parables, for example Allah says: “Cut off the hand of the thief, male or female, as a recompense for that which they committed……..” (5:38) is a fitting example of that. The thief in this verse is general like the hand. The oral tradition explains the first of them and restricts it by ‘as-‘sareq’ (the thief) is explained by the action of the Prophet (S.A.W) or the action of his companions and his confirmation. They used to cut the hand of the thief from the wrist as is known in the work of Hadis. Another fitting example is as stated by the Quran: “When you travel on earth, there is no blame on you to shorten your prayer, for fear the unbelievers will persecute you.” (4:101) it is obvious from this verse that fear is a pre-requisite for the shortening of prayers. Some of the Prophet’s companions asked him: “Why do we shorten our prayers while we feel safe?” He said: It is a charity from Allah, so accept it (Muslim).
Ijma is the third source of Islamic legal thinking. In the terminology of religion Ijma means consensus of the companions of the Prophet (S.A.W) or Muslim jurists of a particular age, on a question of law. The Quran supports Ijma” You are the best of people evolved for mankind enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong and believing in Allah.”[3:110] It is used when the Quran and Sunnah have not spoken the final word on a matter. Ijma of the scholars signifies the importance of the legislation in the Muslim community. Ijma is considered as sufficient evidence for the implementation of the Islamic law because Prophet (S.A.W) himself said “My community will not agree unanimously on an error” (Tirmizi). An example of its use with Quran in legal thinking would be that the Quran says” It is prescribed, when death approaches any of you, if he leaves behind any goods, the let him make a bequest for them to parents or next of kin”[2:180] Now, what if both the father and son dies. According thw Ijma, the principle was derived from the aformentioned verse that in this case, the grandfather ot other relatives will share in the son’s estate or property.
Qiyas is the fourth source of Islamic law. In the Islamic Legal terminology Qiyas is a process of deduction by which the law of text is applied to cases, which though not covered by the language, are covered by the reason of the text, when clarification of a certain matter or issue is not available in the Holy Quran, the Sunnah or previous Ijma, than an expert jurist (Mujtahids) can carry out Qiyas. The Qiyas must be firmly rooted in the primary sources that are the Quran and the Sunnah. The Holy Quran has recognized the exercise of private judgment (Qiyas) in surah Al-Araf verse number 179. The example of Quran used in relation with Qiyas would be that the Asl(original case) in the Quran is”O you who believe, when the call is proclaimed on Friday, hasten earnestly to the rememberance of Allah and leave all business and traffic…”[62:9]. Now the Far(new case) was that whether to leave behind all other transactions or not? The illah(analogy) was that all transactions like business transactions distract Muslims from Friday Prayer. Therefore, the hukm(command) was that all transactions are banned during Friday Prayer.

 

Question: What is Ijma how and in what circumstances it is used in Islamic Legal thinking? [10]
Answer: Ijma come from the word ‘Jamaat’ meaning gathering or unanimity. In Islamic terminology, Ijma means a consensus of opinion of the companions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) or Muslim Jurists (Mujtahids) of a particular age upon a rule of Islamic law. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) said “Gather together the righteous from among mu community and decide the matter by their council and do not decide it by any man’s opinion” (Abu Daud). 
It is the third source of religious and legal authority in Islam. Changing time after the demise of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) has led up to the complicated lifestyle which has given rise to many new problems of diverse nature. Since these problems are mostly associated with modern way of living, it is possible that their solution could not be found in the Quran and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). There are many things which did not existed in the time of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) and are the inventions of modern era. In practical situations problems arise thus the Muslim Jurists resorted to consensus, to reach an agreed solution in the light of basic Islamic principles. If the Ijtehad of jurists on some point secure the full agreement of all the jurists of the period and is not contrary to the Quran and the Hadis than it becomes binding in character and forms a law.
As the Quran is the first primary source of law containing complete code of life and universal guidance for all time containing Islamic Laws and legal system. The Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) is not only an elaboration of the meaning of the Holy Quran but also addresses issues over which the Holy Quran maintains silence. As the Quran says: “O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the messenger (S.A.W) and those charged with authority among you……” (4:58)
However, in order to practice Ijma, those involved in the consensus must be qualified as Mujtahids (those who have attained the status of Ijtehad). Most Jurists also do not regard Ijma as valid if there remains an opposing minority amongst the Mujtahids who do not agree to it. The Ummah of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) that is protected against error in collective agreements. In some circumstances in which the Quran and the Sunnah do not offer guidance like the problems associated with the modern way of living, Nowadays here consensus is allowed as the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) said “My community will not agree unanimously on an error” (Tirmizi).
The compilation of the Quran after the death Holy Prophet (S.A.W) on the suggestion of Hazrat Umar (R.A) and by the Ijma of the companions it was compiled in the book form. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said “The hand of Allah is with the community” (Mishkat).

 

Hazrat BiBi Ayeisha Siddiqa [10]
Hazrat Bibi Ayesha (R.A): 

The life of Hazrat Aisha (R.A) is proof that a woman can be far more learned than men and that she can be the teacher of scholars and experts. Her life is also proof that the same woman can be totally feminine and be a source of pleasure, joy and comfort to her husband.
In her youth, already known for her striking beauty and her formidable memory, she came under the loving care and attention of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) himself. As his wife and close companion she acquired from him knowledge and insight such as no woman has acquired. Hazrat Aisha Siddiqa bint Al Siddiq is the second most beloved wife of the Prophet Muhmmad (S.A.W) after his first wife Khadija (R.A). As her nickname implies, she was the daughter of Abu Bakr Al Siddiq the closest friend of the Prophet and his first successor or caliph. She is given the title “Siddiqa” because of an incident after which God Almighty testified to her honesty, trustworthiness and purity. Books of Seerah tell us about it as the following:When the Prophet returned victorious from the battle of Bani Al Mustaliq, Aisha was accompanying him. On its way back to Madinah, not very far away from it the army stopped part of the night; then it was allowed to continue the journey which the army did until it entered Madinah. The camel of Aisha was led to her house with her small cabin on its back. To the astonishment of all onlookers Aisha was not there. So the news spread like fire; and the Prophet and his companions started to search everywhere; after a short while, however, Aisha was seen riding another camel led by a companion called Safwan Ibn Muattil Al Salami.At that very moment the leader of the hypocrites Abdullah bin ubay bin Salool accursed her for fornication this was indeed an extremely hard time not only for Aisha and her father Abu Bakr Al Siddiq but for the Prophet as well who approached Aisha and said: If you committed anything, then confess it and repent to God who will forgive you.
These statements only increased the sufferings of Aisha so much so that she fell seriously ill. It was only the Divine revelation that acquitted her and declared her innocence and purity. This took place after a whole month of adversity and hardship. That is why Aisha deserved the title of Siddiqa, the truthful, because God Almighty testified to her honesty. She was distinguished for her virtues – piety learning, wisdom, simplicity, generosity and the care with which she safeguarded and faithfully reported the religious sermons of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). She bravely criticized the thing that she thought against Islam. Her simplicity and modesty serve as a guiding light to all the Muslim ladies of the world. There were hardly three successive days during the life time of her husband (S.A.W), when Hazrat Ayesha (RA) had a full meal. The night when the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) breathed his last she had no light to lighten her lamp, nor anything to eat.
Hazrat Ayesha (RA) was blessed with an amazing memory. She listened to the lectures given by the Holy Prophet (SA.W.) to the delegates and other people most attentively. Sometimes she asked the opinion of her husband (S.A.W) on delicate matters relating to Islam. This secured her position as the most authentic reporter and scholar of the tradition of him (S.A.W). Hazrat Ayesha (RA) remained with Holy Prophet (S.A.W) for ten years.
She was a distinguished woman in the Islamic science of Hadis, and Ulloom-ul-Quran. She had a photographic memory, thanks to her intelligence, understanding, and desire for learning, good memory that’s why she remembered more than 2 thousand Hadis from Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). After Prophet’s (S.A.W) death large number of companions and successors visited her and sort her advice, particularly in the field of ‘Fiqh’ and Hadis. She was recognized as an important source of teachings of Islam after the death of Holy Prophet (S.A.W). She played a significant part in important decisions made in early years and she was one of the companions to issue the highest number of ‘Fatawah’. She became one of the seven companions to transmit the greatest number of Hadis. After Hazrat Usman (R.A) was martyred, she demanded the punishment from Khalifa Hazrat Ali (R.A) which led to a discord; some would say that her part in revolt of Hazrat Zubair and Hazrat Talha (R.A) caused the final split in the Muslim community (Allah knows best) no one has the right to judge or say anything against them as Allah Himself said for them in the Quran: “Vanguard (of Islam) the first of those who forsook (their homes) and those who gave them aid and (also) those who follow them in (all) good deeds, well pleased is Allah with them as are they with Him……..” (9:100). The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said “Don’t rebuke my companions; If someone of you spends as much gold as Uhad, he will not reach the reward of ‘one mud’ of anyone of them, nor half of it” (Agreed Upon). . Hazrat Ayesha (R.A) lived for another 47 years after the death of Prophet (S.A.W) and died in 57 or 58 year A.H, when she was 66 years old and she was buried in Jannat-ul-Baqi.

 

Question: How the Quran was compiled during the lifetime of Holy Prophet (S.A.W)? [10]
Answer: Since the Holy Quran was not revealed all at once and its different verses were revealed as and when appropriate so it was neither possible nor practicable from the very beginning to write and preserve Holy Quran in one book form. It must be kept in mind that the memory of the Arabs was very strong and of course there is a reason behind this which is explained in the Holy Quran as Allah says “Verily, it is we who has send down this message and it is we who shall guard it.” (Surah Hijr’ 15:9). The Quran was revealed to Holy Prophet (S.A.W) through Jibrael (A.S). So the first method of recording the Holy Quran was through the memorization of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). Upon receiving of the Wahi (revelation), the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) immediately commit all passages revealed to him to his memory, which is known as Hifz “…….And Apostle from God, rehearsing scriptures, kept pure and holy ……..” (98:2). Thereafter he would recite the same to his companions and companions immediately confined it to their memories quiet easily and this practice was encouraged by Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). Hazrat Usman bin Affan (R.A) narrated that the Prophet (S.A.W) as saying “The most superior among the companions were those who learn the Quran and then taught it to others” (Sahih Bukhari) than the passages were also regularly recited in five daily prayers.
It was also the practice of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) to listen to Quranic recitation from the companions. After this the holy Prophet (S.A.W) immediately ask his scribes which are about 40 in number to write down the revelation he had received, and he would confirm and recheck it by himself. Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was an Ummi who could not read and write, therefore after receiving each revelation he would repeat it to his companions and they would write down the revelation. The leading scribes like Zaid bin Sabit (R.A), Abdullah Ibne Masood (R.A), Ubaid bin Kaab (R.A), Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A), Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A), Hazrat Ali (R.A) and Hazrat Usman (R.A). Hazrat Zaid bin Sabit (R.A) being the secretary of the scribes.
They used to write the revelation of the Holy Quran on the pieces of parched leathers, dead palm branches and leaves, scraps of leather, thin flat stones and shoulder blades of camels and sheep. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) would also indicate in which Surah each Ayat was to be placed. The companions never interfered in the arrangement of the Ayats because the arrangement was on the command of Allah Al-Mighty Himself. Hazrat Zaid bin Sabit (R.A) was one of the most prominent scribes and has reported that he, along with other companions would compile the Quran in the presence of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) during this time the names of the Surahs were also known. Angel Jibrael (A.S) would also come to Holy Prophet (S.A.W) every Ramzan to listen to him reciting the Quran and listen to him twice in the year of his demise.

 

Allah’s relation with 2 of his messengers

According to the Quranic passages we have studied about Allah and his Messengers we came to understand and belief that all the apostles and prophets sent by Allah were men, had wives and children and were mortal. According to a tradition of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W), their number is said to be 124,000. They are Allah’s vicegerents on earth they don’t do Shirk. They have been granted special favors, miracles and great knowledge by Allah as Allah says: “We did indeed send before you Messengers to their (respective) people, and they came to them with clear signs.” (30:47). they must follow His instructions and their focus is towards Allah only. The Quran says that Allah sent a Warner and guide to every nation. Number of surah gives narrations of His selected Messengers and many surahs are named after the messengers like They include Nuh (71), Ibrahim (14), Hud (11), Yusuf (12), Younus (10) and Muhammad (47).. 
They are very intelligent they recognize Allah very well through His Signs like in surah Anam’s verses 75 to 79Abraham was gradually guided to identify the real Creator and Lord by way of His creations such as the sun the moon and the stars. 
In Surah Baqara verse 30 to 37 was about the beginning of the line is Hazrat Adam, who was also the first human being. Allah bestowed prophet hood on him and gave him guidance for himself and his descendants. We sent Noah to his People (with the Command): “Do warn your people before there come to them a grievous Penalty” (Quran).There is also a description of special Prophetic sign granted to them like Musa, Isa and others.
About Hazrat Musa the Quran states: “Move your hand into your bosom, and it will come forth white without stain.” (Surah al-Qasas) About Jesus the Quran says: “……….And behold! You make out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by my leave, and you breathe into it and it becomes a bird by my leave, and you heal those born blind, and the lepers, by my leave” (Surah Al-Maida). Most importantly, the Quran declares the finality of the Holy Prophet by terming him as the “seal of Prophets” in this verse: “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things” (Ahzab: 40)


Q2: 
Q: Outline the main teachings of the Hadiths you have studied about the responsibilities of individual Muslims. [10]
Answer: The Prophet (SAW) gave us teachings about a number of responsibilities that we should follow. In the first place, he tells us that we should be sincere to Allah, to his Book and to his Messenger. This means that we must put Allah before everything else that we do, and also we must recite the holy Qur’an regularly and study it, and we must follow the example of the Prophet (SAW). If we do this we will fulfill the main requirements of Islam because if we follow the Prophet (SAW) we will perform all the requirements of Islam. It is very important for us to believe that Allah is one. The Prophet (SAW) has also taught us that we should fulfill our responsibilities to our fellow creatures. He has said: “I and the man who brings up an orphan will be in paradise like this. And he pointed with his two fingers, the index finger and the middle finger.” (Sahi Bukhari) This means that we must take care of orphans. But it also teaches us that we should look after anyone who is alone with no one to look after them. It includes all the people who cannot look after themselves. The Prophet (SAW) has also said that we must take care of our brothers, in his words: “none of you believes until he desires for his brother what he desires for himself.” (Sahi Bukahri) What he means here is fellow Muslims, We must behave towards them as we behave towards ourselves, because it is only by acting the best towards them that we show we are good Muslims. The Prophet (SAW) has also told us that we have responsibility in this world. He said: “the world is the believer’s prison and the unbeliever’s paradise.” (Sahi Bukhari) He meant that a true believer remembers the world of hereafter and so will not indulge in this world too much.

 

Q3: Q: Outline the main teachings of the Hadith you have studied about the importance of Muslim communal life. [10]
The Ahadith of the Holy Prophet guide Muslims for individual as well as communal conduct and matters of the Muslims. A Muslim’s life is devoted to the pleasure of Allah and His Messenger. But this favor can be earned only when one’s life is pious on an individual level and cares for the uplift and betterment of the society as well. Some of the golden rules we have studied, which deal with the conduct of Muslims in a community are, for example, the fact that all Muslims are brothers to each other in a society ‘’None of you believes until he wants for his brother what he wants for himself’’. Deceiving, hating and harming others go against the very nature and spirit of Islam. Brotherly feelings should be based on seeking divine pleasure. Moreover, all human beings are equal in the eyes of Allah because all are the descendants of the Prophet Adam.
Importance of being kind and polite towards fellow human beings has been highlighted in this collection of Ahadith as well. The Prophet taught us to speak well and speak the truth. Our words should not hurt the feelings of others ‘’ Let him who believes in Allah and the Last Day either speak well or keep silent’’. (Al-Muslim) Helping out others, Muslims or non-Muslims, has been stressed in this collection of traditions. This help can be through charity or donation. Giving a good piece of advice, teaching and talking to others with a smile on the face, all these are works of charity ‘’ to speak a pleasant word is charity and removing a harmful thing from the road is charity.” (Al-Bukhari)Islam encourages us to observe human rights: the rights of parents, children, spouse, poor etc. An ideal Muslim believes and devotes his life to the welfare of others. The Prophet in this regard said: ‘’ One who manages the affairs of the widows and the poor is like the one who exerts himself in the way of Allah’’. (Al-Bukhari)
Finally the Holy Prophet commanded the Muslims to work for the good of humans to turn society into a beautiful paradise on earth. A believer must engage in Jihad to eradicate evil from the society; true believers should do Jihad in one of three forms: with hands, with tongue or in the heart. ‘’ Whosoever of you sees an evil action, let him change it with his hand, and if he is not able to do so, then with his tongue, and if he is not able to do so, then with his heart, and that is the weakest of faith.” (Al-Bukhari)
Thus it can be seen that the Ahadith of the Prophet provides guidance regarding the communal conduct of Muslims.

 

 

The Caliphate of Hazarat Usman (r.a)
Question: How Usman was elected?
Answer: Umar nominated Ali, Talha, Zubair, Usman, Abur Rehman bin Auf and Saad bin AbiWaqqas. All were one of the 10 blessed companions. Umar’s choice was Abdur Rehman but he was not willing to shoulder the responsibility. Talha was not in Meidna so the choice was now restricted to the remaining four. It was decided that as Abdur Rehman had stepped down, therefore he should choose the next Caliph. He consulted each one individually; Ali chose Usman and Usman chose Ali, Saad supported Usman while Zubair mentioned both Usman and Ali. He asked the opinion of the other prominent men as well and came to the conclusion that the majority favoured Usman. Abdur Rehman first took the pledge of allegiance followed by Ali and other companions and there was a general pledge. He became the third Caliph on the 4th Muharram 24 A.H.


Question: Briefly describe the main events of the caliphate of Usman? [10]
Answer: Uthman was the third caliph. He continued the policy of expanding the Islamic territories. He expanded the state towards the east and in the Mediterranean and crushed many rebellions. During the early years, the process of expansion of the Empire continued. The army moved in all directions and for the first time in Islamic History, utilized naval power. During his caliphate, for the first time a fleet of nearly 500 ships was built to fight with the Greeks on the Mediterranean Sea. His earliest focus was the Persian Empire in the East. Khurasan, Merv, Tus, Sarakhs and the then Khawarzim were captured in 650 AD. This bought 40,000 captives and rich booty to Medina. Towards the West, the Byzantines forces were defeated and Cyprus was conquered in 649 AD. In North America, Libya, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia were conquered by the middle of the 7th century. In 651 AD, the standardization of the Quran on the basis of Mushaf-e-Hafsa was done. Recitation on the model of only this copy was allowed and the rest burnt. Official copies dispatched to all provincial capitals. Two of the original manuscripts of his time exist even today Continued to improve on the administrative network laid down by the previous Caliphs. Regrouped some of the provinces and created new provinces for the newly conquered territories. Majlis-e-Shoora or council of consultation was maintained. Held periodic conference of the district authorities in order to keep him informed of the conditions of the country Used to hear public complaints after Friday prayers. He allowed Arabs to acquire agricultural lands in the conquered territories. Expanded the Prophet’s mosque and constructed new mosques, inns, border outposts etc. He made arrangements for the supply of drinking water for travellers by digging wells by the sides of roads and highways, a dam was built to protect Medina from floods Raised the salaries of the officers and the armed forces. Increased the allowances paid to people by 25% is said to have sent religious teachers to India to spread Islam. During the last years of his Caliphate, he faced serious difficulties that eventually led to his martyrdom in 35 AH. He was a very gentle and soft hearted person. The people who wanted to create chaos among Muslims took advantage of his soft nature. Umar was a very strict administrator and the machinery of the government worked smoothly in his time. Usman used to overlook the minor faults of the appointed Amils, provincial heads as well as the new converts. They took advantage of his leniency and rebelled against him. Abdullah bin Saba, a Yemenite Jew who outwardly accepted Islam, embarked on a subtle campaign of creating dissension (conflict) among the Muslims. He and his followers established their headquarters in Egypt and began to circulate forged letters that complaints against the Caliph, his governors and other state officials. Efforts were made to highlight the long forgotten rivalry between Banu Hashim and Banu Umayya. Usman did not take timely action against him. Even some of the noblest actions of his were misprojected before the public; for example, the standardization of the Quran and the expansion of the compound of the Kaabah. That uprisings in Iraq, Kufa and Egypt finally in 35 AH troops from all three provinces arrived at Medina to take their complaints directly to the Caliph. Usman had pacified them and they were on their way home when they got a hold of a letter supposedly from ‘Usman to the Governor of Egypt to have the leaders of the group put to death on their return. Seeking vengeance they returned and killed him. One of the main allegations against him was that he had appointed his inefficient relatives as governors. There were 12 provinces in the country and he appointed his relatives in 4: Egypt, Syria, Kufa and Basra. All the governors appointed by him were people of great caliber. AmeerMuaviya, a relative of his was appointed by Umar as the governor of Syria and Usman let him continue his job because he was doing it well. Abdullah bin Saad, his foster brother, was appointed governor of Egypt also by Umar. Usman appointed Saad bin Abi Waqqas as governor of Kufa. When he was unable to control the situation there, he was replaced by Waleed bin Uqba (Usman’s foster brother) who proved his worth. Abu Musa Ashari was deposed at the demand of people of Basra, was replaced by Abdullah bin Amir (Usman’s cousin) according to the wishes of the people. He proved very successful Thus none of the governors appointed by him proved a failure. It was also alleged that he was too lenient and did not keep a check on his governors. He, unlike Umar, gave the governors a free hand in running the provinces and did not interfere in there day to day affairs. His burning of the Quran was seen by some as destroying God’s Word. This was done after consultation with the other companions and it was a great service that he rendered to Islam. He gave convincing reply to each of the charges in the presence of the Prophet’s companions. His explanation was accepted. The rebels however struck to one point—their demand to depose the Caliph. To achieve this end, finally in 35 A.H troops from Egypt, Kufa and Basra marched to Medina and encamped outside the capital. Usman had pacified them and they were on their way home when they got hold of a letter supposedly from ‘Usman to the governor of Egypt to have the leaders of the group put to death on their return. 

 

Question: What were the difficulties faced by Usman in the last days of his Caliphate?

Answer: During the last years of his Caliphate, he faced serious difficulties that eventually led to his martyrdom in 35 A.H. One of the main allegations against him was that he had appointed his inefficient relatives as governors. There were 12 provinces in the country and he appointed his relatives in 4: Egypt, Syria, Kufa and Basra. All the governors appointed by him were people of great caliber. AmeerMuaviya, a relative of his was appointed by Umar as the governor of Syria and Usman let him continue his job because he was doing it well. Abdullah bin Saad, his foster brother, was appointed governor of Egypt also by Umar. Usman appointed Saad bin Abi Waqqas as governor of Kufa. When he was unable to control the situation there, he was replaced by Waleed bin Uqba (Usman’s foster brother) who proved his worth. Abu Musa Ashari was deposed at the demand of people of Basra, was replaced by Abdullah bin Amir (Usman’s cousin) according to the wishes of the people. He proved very successful thus none of the governors appointed by him proved a failure. It was also alleged that he was too lenient and did not keep a check on his governors. He, unlike Umar, gave the governors a free hand in running the provinces and did not interfere in there day to day affairs. His burning of the Quran was seen by some as destroying God’s Word. This was done after consultation with the other companions and it was a great service that he rendered to Islam. He gave convincing reply to each of the charges in the presence of the Prophet’s companions. His explanation was accepted. He was a very gentle and soft hearted person. The people who wanted to create chaos among Muslims took advantage of his soft nature. Umar was a very strict administer and the machinery of the government worked smoothly in his time. Usman used to overlook the minor faults of the appointed Amils, provincial heads as well as the new converts. They took an advantage of his leniency and rebelled against him. Abdullah bin Saba, a Yemenite Jew who outwardly accepted Islam, embarked on a subtle campaign of creating dissension (conflict) among the Muslims. He and his followers established their headquarters in Egypt and began to circulate forged letters that complaints against the Caliph, his governors and other state officials. Efforts were made to highlight the long forgotten rivalry between BanuHashim and BanuUmayya. 
Usman did not take timely action against him. Even some of the noblest actions of his were mis-projected before the public; for example, the standardization of the Quran and the expansion of the compound of the Kaabah. The uprisings in Iraq, Kufa and Egypt finally in 35 A.H troops from all three provinces and arrived at Medina to take their complaints directly to the caliph. Usman had pacified them and they were on their way home when they got hold of a letter supposedly from ‘Usman to the governor of Egypt to have the leaders of the group put to death on their return. Seeking vengeance they returned and killed him.

 

Question: Describe the ways in which the earliest companions started their compilations of Hadis? [10]

Question: What methods were adopted to preserve the Hadis? [10]

Question: Write a note on the History of Ahadis? [10]

Question: Discuss the compilation of Ahadis in the early centuries of Islam? [10]

 

 

Answer: The first period of the compilation of the Ahadis was during Holy Prophet (S.A.W) lifetime. Prophet himself would give instructions about the transmission of what he taught, “Preach what you hear me say. Also let those who see and hear me, take upon themselves to communicate my words to others and preach to their children, relatives and friends.” The Companions had three methods of learning or preservation of the Hadis; memorization, writing, and practice. The companions always tried to observe the actions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W), remember his sayings and then apply what they saw to their own practices in their everyday life.

Abu Hurairah used to write what he heard from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in a book form and more than 5000 Ahadis were attributed to him. Similarly, Hazrat Ali (R.A) had a booklet containing traditions which concerned the orders and instructions from time to time by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (R.A) wrote every word of Holy Prophet (S.A.W)’s speech and more than 2000 Ahadis were attributed to him. Hence during this time more than 10000 Ahadis were collected. Hazrat Aisha (R.A) also used to preserve the sayings of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) likewise Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas was engaged in preserving and transmitting the Ahadis

During this period the companions acted and wrote what the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said individually.

The second period of compilation (101-200 AH) was after the Holy Prophet’s death. New converts wanted to hear about him (S.A.W) and therefore the companions were the first source of information who narrated to their successor (Tabaeen).

Umar bin Abdul Malik gave the official orders that the Ahadis should be compiled. Therefore many scholars prepared many collections of the Ahadis and various methods were adopted in its arrangement. The first method was by tracing them to each companion despite the theme. It is called Masnad, the titles of their chapters are Masnad of Abu Bakr (R.A), Masnad of Abu Hurairah (R.A), Masnad of Hazrat Bibi Aisha (R.A), and the famous compilation by Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal.

The second category was by grouping the Ahadis into chapters and some of the chapters according to their theme. The best non-compilation of this type is Al-Mutah by Imam Malik and Al-Musannaf of Imam Abdul Razaq. The compilers introduced each Ahadis with its own Isnad (series of authorities). But they did not discriminate between the authentic and less authentic Ahadis. So they were mixed up.

Third period (Golden period) (200-300 AH) – The third period begin with the death of the companions. Muslims had to rely on the communication of the successors who narrated to the Taba Ta baeen or successors of the successors. This was the golden age of Ahadis. Reciting and memorizing traditions was considered to be a privilege and soon a great number of them had been collected. Ahadis could be authentic or lesser authentic and so the early authorities included only those Ahadis which they considered to be genuine. The ones suspected to be fabricated were rejected. They said that the text should have no conflict with the Quran or with more reliable Hadis. Isnad must be full and unbroken while the narrators must be known for his memory, piety and knowledge.

The Asol ul-Hadis was already been developed and Ismail Al-Bukhari’s idea to compile the authentic Ahadis through a branch of Asol ul-Hadith called Asma ur-Rijal (to check the chain of Tranmitters) he gathered 600000 of them out of which more than 7000 were added to his work and it took him 16 years to compile. He was followed by number of other scholars such as Imam Muslim ibne Hajaj. The collection by Bukhari and Muslim are held in great esteem and are known as the two Sahihs that is the two collection recognized as absolutely authentic. Abu Daud author of al-Sunan, Al-Tirmizi, author of Al-Jame, Al-Nasai author of al-Sunnah and ibne Majah author of Kitab Al-Sunnah. These four works along with Bukhari and Muslim became widely recognized in the Muslim world as six leading books called Al-Kutub Al-Sitta or the six Sahihs.

In the last period many other scholars compiled new collections. Their contents were taken from the six books and arranged in various ways until it was felt that all the Ahadis circulating orally introduced to writing. Hence the Hadis literature became exceedingly rich and finally came to the state as we know it today. It is guide for all Muslims.

 

]

 

 

 

Question: Explain the importance of the Isnad (chain of transmitters) and of the Matan (body of text) in assisting scholars to check the authenticity of a Hadith? [10]

 

 

Answer: The importance of the Isnad and the Matan in assisting scholars to check the authenticity of Hadith were made in 4th generation of compilers of Hadith by Imam Bukhari and his contemporaries (Muslim, Nisai, Tirmizi, Ibn-e Majah and Abu Daud). They travelled far off to find the transmitters of Hadith and rejected the sayings of those who were not pious; Once, Imam Bukhari travelled very far to get knowledge of Hadith by a narrator. When he arrived there he saw that the narrator of the Hadith was calling his camel towards himself by showing it his empty food box (as if food was in it). Imam Bukhari turned and walked away by saying that if he can deceive an animal, he can deceive me as well and so his Hadith was unreliable. They faced great difficulties in checking the authenticity of Hadith as at that time a huge number of Ahadith were in circulation. The solution they chose was to test the authenticity of Hadith by their rules of Isnad (chain of transmitters) and Matan (the body of the text).

The rules set for the Isnad (chain of transmitters) are:

They ensured the chain of transmitters (Isnad) was unbroken and there should be a direct approach to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W).They checked that the transmitters were known to those before and to those after them in chain. There shouldn’t be any hidden defects e.g. names repeated, major misspelling. No non-Muslim in the chain. Each transmitter must have known the transmitter before him and transmitter after him. There must not be a very big time gap that one narrator hears when he is too young from someone too old. Any event happening in public must have more than one set of narrators. They rejected Hadith whose chain of transmitters were questionable (no gaps or weaknesses)

The rules set for the Matan (body of the text) are:

The Hadith should not go in contradiction with the Holy Quran nor the basics of Islamic teachings. The Hadith should not go in contradiction with any authentic (accepted) Hadith. It should not go against commonsense or people’s normal experience. It should not praise an individual, a definite location or a tribe. It should not give precise details of the events happened after the demise of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W).It should not contain expressions that were out of keeping with what the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) might be expected to use. The Hadith should be free from hidden defects like faults in minute details e.g. dates etc. If the Hadith made any remark about Prophet Hood of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W), which is against the Islamic principles, is rejected. Any Hadith that begins with “We used to…….” Without direct mentioning of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) was ignored as

 

 

Question: Describe the qualities required and say why these qualities were important for transmitting hadiths? [10]

 

 

The qualities which are reqired to check the individual Narrator in the chain of transmitter of a Hadith are:

The narrator of the Hadis must be of firm faith and honest. He must be known for truthfulness in whatever he reports. The narrator must be trustworthy, reliable and righteous. He should understand what he report and know how a change of word can change the ideas in it. He should report exactly what he has learned from his teacher and not to use his own words. The narrator must have a very good sound memory. He should report what agrees with the reporters of others known to have good memories. A narrator cannot criticize someone that the Ummah has accepted. Examples are Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim. Anyone who criticizes these great scholars would be considered to be from the people of innovation and qualities are important for two things in a hadith: Sanad or Isnad refers to the chain of narrators that has reported any given Hadis. In the sciences of Hadis the Muslim Scholars agreed that the chain must begin from the Muhaddis of the Hadis and must ends at the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) or in the case of Hadis e-Qudsi ends at Allah (S.W.T). The concept of Isnad could be thought of as the core of the sciences of Hadis. No other religion, culture, or dynasty on the face of this earth has ever come up with such a precise method of bringing for statements of a person then with the Isnad system in Islam. One of the most famous Muslim scholar Abdullah bin Al Mubarak said “The Isnad to me is part of the Deen. If it wasn’t for the Isnad anyone would say anything he wanted” so we are the only Ummah of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) is also known as the Ummah of Isnad because no other religion in this present world has the weapon of Isnad. Isnad basically a rigorous testing of the links between individuals and transmitting the Hadis from the Muhaddis till it reaches Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) and through this testing Muslims are certain of the authenticity of the Hadis.

The Matan refers to the actual text of Hadis which is authentic in the actual Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). It is the text of the tradition or what the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) actually said or did. The text or Matan of the Hadis must not conflict or contradict with the Holy Quran nor should it conflict with other reliable or authentic Hadis. For example the Holy Quran says “Establish prayer” and the Hadis of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) explains it as “Pray as you see me praying” so this Matan of Hadis explains us the rules of praying Salah.

With these rules the compilers of authentic books of Ahadis were able to classify Hadis into types:

a) Sahih (the authentic)

b) Hassan (fair, about which little doubt)

c) Zaeef (weak, which raises many doubts concerning authenticity)

 

 

Question: How the Hadith was compiled during prophet’s life? [10]

The first period of the compilation of the Ahadis was during Holy Prophet (S.A.W)’s lifetime. Prophet himself would give instructions about the transmission of what he taught, “Preach what you hear me say. Also let those who see and hear me, take upon themselves to communicate my words to others and preach to their children, relatives and friends.” There is another report according to which on the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet said, and “He who is present here should carry this message to him who is absent.”

The Companions had three methods of learning or preservation of the Ahadis which are: memorization, writing, and practice. The companions always tried to observe the actions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W), remember his sayings and then apply what they saw to their own practices in their everyday life. The companions considered it their duty to preach the Ahadis to those who had not seen or listened to him. A party of students called Ashab-e-Suffah lived in the mosque itself was entrusted with the teaching of religion to tribes outside Madinah. From this group most famous was Abu Hurairah (RA) who remained in The Prophet (S.A.W)’s Company at all the times and stores up in his memory everything that Prophet said or did. Abu Hurairah (RA)’s efforts were from the very beginning directed towards the preservation of Ahadis.

Abu Hurairah used to write what he heard from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in a book form and more than 5000 Ahadis were attributed to him. Similarly, Hazrat Ali (R.A) had a booklet containing traditions which concerned the orders and instructions from time to time by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (R.A) wrote every word of Holy Prophet (S.A.W)’s speech and more than 2000 Ahadis were attributed to him. Hence during this time more than 10000 Ahadis were collected. Hazrat Aisha (R.A) also used to preserve the sayings of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) likewise Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas was engaged in preserving and transmitting the Ahadis It is related from Abu Hurairah (RA) that once one of the companions told the Prophet of his inability to remember what he heard from him. His reply was that he should seek the help of his right hand i.e., write it down. (Tirmizi) Abdullah bin Umar (R.A) began to write down whatever he heard from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). His collections contained around 10,000 Ahadis. Abdullah bin Umar (R.A) himself said: “I used to write everything that I heard from the Prophet (S.A.W) intending to commit it to memory. I spoke about it to the prophet (S.A.W) who said: “write down, for I only speak the truth.”(Abu Daud)

Another report of Abu Hurairah (RA): ‘None of the companions preserved more traditions than me, but Abdullah bin Amr is an exception for he used to write and I did not.” (Bukhari) Hazrat Ali (R.A) used to write down Ahadis concerning the Orders, Instructions issued from Holy Prophet (S.A.W). Hazrat Aisha (R.A) also used to preserve the sayings of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) Abdullah bin Umar and Abdullah bin Abbas were engaged in preserving and transmitting the Ahadis. The Compilation of Abdullah bin Umar was known as Sadiqa. Process of compilation started in the Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) during this period the companions acted and wrote what the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said individually.

d) Maudu (fabricated, un-Islamic)

 

 

Question: What are the Stages that led to the compilation of 6 authentic books of Hadith? [10]

 

 

Stage One: Time of the Prophet (s)

 

Companions recorded statements and actions of the Prophet (s) – some memorized while others memorized as well as wrote it. An example of such companions is Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-Aas. Given the absence of literacy amongst most, they had developed their memory exceptionally well as that is all they had to rely for most important affairs of their lives as well as for their forms of “entertainment”, i.e. poetry. This was further developed due to importance of memorizing the Quran and reciting every day in the five time prayers. Practically no Muslim could be a practicing Muslim without memorizing at least some hadith (statements etc.) of the Prophet – to know what to recite during the compulsory five times prayers, to arbitrate in disputes between themselves at a family level or that of community. So hadith were indispensable and therefore some memorized by every Muslim.

 

Stage Two: Companions (Sahabah) of the Prophet Muhammad (s)

 

Efforts of Sahabah in collection for own practice and fatwa for others e.g. Abu Hurairah (d. 59H), Abdullah Ibn Abbas (d. 68H), Jabir ibn Abdullah (d. 78H), Aisha bint Abu Bakr (d. 58H), Anas ibn Malik (10BH-93AH), Abudllah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas (d. 63H), Abdullah ibn Umar (d. 74H) and Abdullah ibn Masud (d. 32H) Efforts of Sahabah in ensuring authenticity e.g. Umar ibn Khattab and Aishah they memorized it and some wrote it e.g. Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Aas or their students wrote it from them e.g. students of Ibn Abbas, Abu Hurairah, etc.

 

Stage Three:

 

Tabieen (Students of the Prophet’s Companions)

Efforts of Tabieen who devoted their lives at some stage to collection of hadith, e.g. Urwah ibn Zubair (nephew of Aisha), Nafi Mawla of Abudllah ibn Umar, Thabit ibn Aslam al-Bunani (spent forty years with Anas ibn Malik); also Amrah bint Abdurahman Mawla of Aisha grew up with Aisha learning. Written Collection: Many of Tabieen collected and compiled their hadith in books which were incorporated in books by the next generation and most of those that survive today are in that form as part of other larger books.

 

Stage Four:

 

Efforts of Next generation after Tabieen (Atbaa Tabieen)

Jarh wa Ta’deel: Assessed soundness of narrators of Tabieen’s generation and their own e.g. Shubah (83H – 160H), Malik ibn Anas (93H – 179H), Zuhri (d. 124H), Yahya ibn Saeed al-Qattan (a companion of Imam Malik ibn Anas) Collection of hadith from previous generation by travelling extensively to them or spending long time with them e.g. all of tabieen mentioned above plus many others such as Ibn Sireen (d. 110H) and Hasan al-Basri (d. 110) Compiling and authored books of hadith that are still in circulation today e.g. Malik ibn Anas, Abdullah ibn Mubarak (d. 181 H), Ibn Ishaq (d. 151H). Many others of this and the previous generation (Tabieen) were encouraged (during the first century of Islam) by the Ruler (Caliph) of Muslims then Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz (d. 101H). Umar ibn AbdulAziz, the Caliph, was himself a leading scholar of Islam.

 

Stage Five:

 

Extensive analysis and collections of written works

The most important stage is known as the stage of Saheeh. This stage began during the first half of the third century A.H. (9thcentury C.E.) and overlaps the period of the musnad e.g. Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Saheeh Muslim and Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah. This age of the followers of the companions’ successors from 200 to 300 A.H., is the golden age in Hadith literature.

1. In this age the Prophet’s traditions were separated from the reports of the companions and their successors.

2. The authentic traditions were very carefully and painstakingly sifted from the “weak” traditions and then these were compiled in book-form.

3. Elaborate rules were framed; canons were devised to distinguish the true from the false traditions in accordance with clear principles.

The main attention of scholars who engaged themselves in the critical scrutiny of Hadith was given to the recorded chains of witnesses (isnad); whether the dates of birth and death and places of residence of witnesses in different generations were such as to have made it possible for them to meet, and whether they were trustworthy. This activity, to be properly carried out, involved some feeling for the authenticity of the text itself; an experienced traditionist would develop a sense of discrimination.

This is the period in which six authentic collections of traditions were compiled. These works are considered standard works on Hadith, and are known as the six correct books (sihah-e-sittah). The authors’ names and book titles are as follows:

1. Muhammad b. Ismail al Bukhari, (194 A.H.-256 A.H.): Sahih. This work is next to the Quran in authenticity.

2. Muslim bin Qushairi (204 A.H.-261 A.H.): Sahih. This is the next most important work on Hadith.

3. Ibn Majah (202 A.H.-275 A.H.): Sunan

4. Abu Isa al Tirmizi (209 A.H.-279 A.H.): Jame

5. Abu Abdur Rahman an Nasai (214 A.H.-303 A.H.): Sunan

6. Abu Da‘ud (202 A.H.-275 A.H.): Sunan

 

 

Question: What is the significance of al-Kutub al-Sittah in Hadith Literature for Muslim scholars? [4]

 

 

Al-Kutub Al-Sittah consists of most authentic and reliable Hadis which comprise the content of Sunnah, one of the two fundamental sources of Islamic religion the other sources being the Quran. For this reason Al-Kutub Al-Sittah have been appreciated by Muslim scholars with great enthusiasm and celebrated by them. This widespread acceptance and appreciation have been what have given them their unique status in Hadis literature. Their fame is based first and foremost on the fact that their authors primarily intended to bring together the most authentic Hadis narrations available.

One reason why Al-Kutub Al-Sittah had become so popular among scholarly circles is the attitude of their authors which is based on painstaking investigation and serious hard work. As the result there have been many studies conducted on these books. For example the number of monographs on Al-Bukhari alone exceeds to 100. These six prominent books also draw upon the Hadis text composed before them. They therefore not only constitute the main productions on the golden age of Hadis but also functions as original sources in themselves. The authors of Al-Kutub Al-Sittah have also gained great respect by making the greatest contribution to the study of Hadis and shedding light on Hadis sources for later generations of scholars due to their unique and tireless contributions

 

 

Question: Write down the distinctive features of Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih al-Muslim?

 

Answer: Distinctive Features of Sahih Bukhari

 

Quality and soundness of the chain of narrators of the selected ahadith. Imam Bukhari has followed two principle criteria for selecting sound narratives. First, the lifetime of a narrator should overlap with the lifetime of the authority from whom he narrates. Second, it should be verifiable that narrators have met with their source persons. They should also expressly state that they obtained the narrative from these authorities. This is a stricter criterion than that set by Imam Muslim. Imam Bukhari accepted the narratives from only those who, according to his knowledge, not only believed in Islam but practiced its teachings. Thus, he has not accepted narratives from the Murjites.

The particular arrangement and ordering of chapters. This expresses the profound knowledge of the author and his understanding of the religion. This has made the book a more useful guide in understanding of the religious disciplines.

 

 

 

Distinctive Features of Sahih Muslim

 

Imam Muslim recorded only such narratives as were reported by two reliable successors from two Companions which subsequently travelled through two independent unbroken isnads consisting of sound narrators. Imam Bukhari has not followed such a strict criterion in the scientific arrangement of themes and chapters. The author, for example, selects a proper place for the narrative and, next to it, puts all its versions. Imam Bukhari has not followed this method (he scatters different versions of a narrative and the related material in different chapters). Consequently, in the exercise of understanding ahadith, Sahih of Imam Muslim offers the best material to the students.

The Imam informs us whose wordings among the narrators he has used. For example he says: haddathana fulan wa fulan wallafz lifulan (A and B has narrated this hadith to us and the wording used here is by A). Similarly he mentions whether, in a particular hadith, the narrators have differed over the wordings even over a single letter of zero semantic significance. He also informs the readers if narrators have differed over a specific quality, surname, relation or any other fact about a narrator in the chain

 

 

Question: Name the six collections of Sunni Hadis books and discuss their main features?

Question: Write down the main features of the 6 Sunni Hadith books?

Question: Describe the main features of Sunni compilation of Hadith books of the 3rd century?

 

Answer: The 6 collections of Sunni Hadis books which are also called Sahih Al-Sittah or Al-Kutub Al-Sittah are:

 

• Sahih AL-Bukhari: (194-256 A.H

• Sahih Muslim: (204-264 A.H)

• Sunan Abu Daud: (202-275 A.H)

• Sunan Tirmizi: (209-279 A.H)

• Sunan Ibne Majah: (209-273 A.H)

• Sunan Nisai: (214-303 A.H)

 

Most of the Hadis contained in these six books are considered Sahih (authentic and reliable) by Scholars. Although all of the authors said they aimed to include mostly authentic Hadis, none of them claimed that they were able to gather all of the authentic Hadis therefore it is a fact that there are many authentic Hadis not contained in Al-Kutub Al-Sittah as well. The first Muslim scholar who undertook a project of composing a book to contain only authentic Hadis was Imam Muhammad bin Ismail Al-Bukhari; others followed the path that he led. It has been reported in the sources that when these books are evaluated in terms of the authenticity of the Hadis contained in them and of their sources, the books by Imam Al-Bukhari and Muslim’s work should only be precede as a general attribute; that is to say that if each Hadis be analyzed separately, different levels of authenticity can be attributed to them regardless of the book which contains them. In other words the superiority of Al-Bukhari’s Sahih or the fact that An-Nisai’s Sunan is the last one on the list, does not indicate the degree of the strength or weakness of any individual Hadis.

In all the books of Al-Kutub Al-Sittah, the Hadis are classified according to their subject matters; all the Hadis regarding a topic are gathered under similar titles. However, there are some differences amongst the authors in terms of their classification of different topics and there titles, for each of them employ their own unique methods of classification. In Al-Kutub Al-Sittah an individual authentic Hadis can be found sometimes in all of the six books, at other times in only one of them; but mostly the Hadis will be included in several of the books. An individual Hadis may or may not be repeated several times by the books.

All six authors lived in the 3rd century after the Hijra except for An-Nisai (d 303). 4 of the authors were students of Imam Al-Bukhari at one point in their carriers. That is to say almost all of them were contemporaneous and had a relation of teacher student with Imam Al-Bukhari. Virtually all of the authors wrote separate books on biographies of the narrators whom they themselves narrated the Hadis. When taken together the books comprising Al-Kutub Al-Sittah and their differing features represent the entire Hadis literature in terms of their content and methodology. Thus they complement each other in different ways: if someone wishes to find more information regarding Islamic Fiqh they can resort to Al-Bukhari’s Sahih; one wishing fewer taliqat in Hadis can go to Muslim’s Sahih: one who wishes for more information on the narration of Hadis can look it up in Tirmizi’s Jami; one who wishes to find Hadis only on Fiqh topics should consult Abu Daud’s Sunan; one who wishes to find Hadis perfect classification according to the topics in Fiqh could resort to Ibne Majah’s Sunan. Finally many of these features are simultaneously included in the Sunan of An-Nisai. None of the authors of Al-Kutub Al-Sittah were followers of a school of thought in Islamic Fiqh yet they themselves were deeply knowledgeable in Fiqh.

 

 

Question: What is the importance of Hadith in Islamic teachings?

 

Answer: The two fundamental sources of Islam are the Quran (the word of God) and the Sunnah (the example) of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). By Sunnah, we mean the actions, sayings and silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Prophet.

The word “Sunnah” is also used to refer to religious duties that are optional. Here, we are concerned with Sunnah in the sense of the recorded sayings (Hadiths) of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). In this sense, Hadith is considered to be second to the Quran. It is impossible to understand the Quran without reference to the Hadith; and it is impossible to explain a hadith without relating it to the Quran. The Quran is the message, while the Hadith is the verbal translation of the message into pragmatic terms, as exemplified by the Prophet. While the Quran is the metaphysical basis of the Sunnah, the Sunnah is the practical demonstration of the precepts laid down in the Qur’an. The duty of the Messenger was not just to communicate the message; rather, he was entrusted with the most important task of explaining and illustrating that message. That is the reason why Allah Himself has commanded the following: “Say: Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he (the Prophet) is only responsible for the duty placed on him (i.e. to convey Allah’s Message) and you for that placed on you. If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger’s duty is only to convey (the message) in a clear way” (An-Nur 24:54) this verse clearly tells us the overriding importance of Hadith to Muslims. They should be eager to learn and follow the teachings of the Prophet as expressed in Hadith. If we are negligent in this respect, it is we who have to answer before Allah. Speaking of the importance of Hadith, we need to take into consideration two broad aspects of the subject. We know that Allah Almighty revealed the Quran to His chosen Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). So it is through the Prophet we come to hear the word of Allah; and it is the Prophet himself who can properly explain and demonstrate the precepts in the Quran. Without the required explanations and illustrations given by the Prophet, the Quran may be misunderstood and misinterpreted by people. So the Prophet took care to explain and demonstrate to his companions how the Quranic verses must be read and understood. That is to say, the importance of Hadith is linked to the importance of the Quran.

For example, the details of how to perform salah (ritual prayer), for instance, were given by the Prophet through his words and action, and not by the Quran. This means that we wouldn’t know how to pray, fast, pay zakah, or perform Hajj without the examples given by the Prophet as recorded in the Hadith. Indeed, all necessary details are given in the Hadith, not in the Quran.The revelation of each of the verses of the Quran took place at some critical junctures in the life of the Prophet. Of course, there are verses of universal application and significance, irrespective of the context in which those verses were revealed. But there are other verses that can be understood or interpreted only in the light of the actual context in the life of the Prophet, which called for that revelation. There are many examples. For instance, the following verse in the Surah Aali `Imran: “If any one disputes in this matter with thee, now after (full) knowledge hath come to thee, Say: Come! Let us gather together, our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves: then let us earnestly pray. And invoke the curse of Allah on those who lie” (Aali-Imran 3:61) This verse talks about mubahala (invoking the curse of Allah on those who take a dishonest stand); and was revealed when the Prophet was conferring with the Christian delegation from Najran in 631 CE This example clearly shows how we need to refer to the life and example of the Prophet to understand the context, as well as the meaning of verses, such as the above mentioned one in the Quran.

The foregoing shows how Hadith, in practical terms, explains, clarifies, and paraphrases the Quran. If we reject the Hadith, we may misread the Quran; so Hadith is central to a proper understanding of the Quran. In the Quran, Allah Almighty commands us not only to obey the Messenger, but also to abide by his decisions as follows: “But no, by thy Lord, they can have no real faith until they make thee judge in all disputes between them and find in their souls no resistance against thy decisions but accept them with the fullest conviction” (An-Nisaa’ 4:65)And surely we find such decisions only in the Hadith; the duty of Muslims is to accept the Prophet’s decisions whole-heartedly. The Quran also orders the faithful to emulate the role model of the Messenger and reckons it to be the only way to gain the pleasure of Allah.

It is therefore obligatory that we look up to the Prophet’s morals and exemplary character and carry them out in our lives. We can never do so without studying Hadith. It is most illuminating in this respect to learn that when `A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) was asked to describe the character of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), her definitive answer was, “His character was that of the Quran.” In other words, Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) personified the best ideals and values of the Qur’an. How could we then neglect the Hadith, which alone can lead us to the precise ways in which the Prophet exemplified the Qur’anic ideals?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question: Write down the importance of Hadis as the bases for all thoughts and actions in Islam?

Question: How have the Hadiths of the Holy Prophet (S) been used as a source of guidance by Muslims? [10]

 

 

Ans: For the purification and guidance of Muslim’s minds and souls the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) issued many instructions and commandments. They helped one to have a clear view of other fellow beings, characters and eradicate evil thoughts. People with evil and ambitious thoughts can never work for the peace, pleasure, satisfaction and wellbeing of others. Good will only comes forth from such minds which are guided and committed to welfare or humans. However, in deserving the following injunctions of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) his or her actions must benefit the society. The Holy Quran defines the roll of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) in elaborating the teachings of the Holy Quran when it says: “………..And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad SAW) the reminder and the advice (the Qur’an), that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them, and that they may give thought.” (16:44) Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) himself conscious of his mortality, attached a great deal of importance to the knowledge of his own Hadis. The Hadis lay down guide lines to govern Human behavior in manner which is appropriate to the way of life which Allah (S.W.T) desires for an individual to lead. They provide directives for even the most minor aspects of human life e.g. what a Muslim recites when he sneezes; start eating, look in the mirror, drinks milk etc. The most brilliant thing about the Hadis is the way they cover the vast dimensions of human life, suggesting appropriate ways to structure, ones thoughts and actions. Hadis not only provide directions but also mention rewards and punishments to those particular actions to encourage conformity and discourage disobedience. “The one who looks after a widow or a poor person is like a Mujahid (warrior) who fights for Allah’s cause or like him who perform prayers all the night and fasts all day” (Sahih Al-Bukhari)

The teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) not only guides individuals how to act, but also establish a system of believes which go in line with the teachings of the Holy Quran. Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) elaborates the beliefs pertaining to Tawheed, the finality of his Prophet Hood, Articles of Faith, Pillars of Islam etc. He guides us to think of the welfare of other members of the society; to avoid considering other fellow beings with inferiority; to think of one’s self as a humble servant of Allah (S.W.T) to keep the mind clean from all corrupt ideas, to base all our actions on noble intentions etc. Since Islam does not only provide knowledge of virtue and evil, but also provide the application of its system of values and beliefs in the form of appropriate norms, therefore Hadis play a significant to modify an individual’s approach towards life in all thoughts and actions.

 

 

12 (a) In the Hadith you have studied what did the Prophet say and

mean when he spoke about:

(i) tolerance

(ii) evil?

Why is it important to follow the Hadith and sunnah of the Prophet?

[10]

 

Answer: The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in a hadith regarding tolerance and to show mercy says that that among all attributes of God, mercy is very special because according to a Hadith – i- Qudsi: “Truly My mercy overcomes My wrath” God, therefore, loves those who show tolerance and mercy to others, and He commands the Muslims to seek His mercy and extend mercy on others: “Let them forgive and pass over (the offence). Do you not desire that Allah should forgive you? (24:22). The Holy Prophet is called “mercy for all creatures” The Prophet encouraged his followers to keep alive the spirit of mercy and compassion so that they get entitled to God’s mercy in the Hereafter. None can be more ill- fated than the one who gets deprived of God’s mercy. “We sent thee not, but as a mercy for all creatures.” (21:107).

 

The Muslims are required to follow the footsteps of the Prophet who never cursed his enemies and insulters in Makka, Taif and the battlefield. In the battle of Uhud, when some companion asked him to curse the Makkans, his reply was: “I have not been sent to curse” He kindly treated captives of Badr and forgave his fatal enemies on the conquest of Makk with tolerance. Muslims today may imitate such noble conduct and generosity of heart: “Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.” (2:185) they should not overburden their employees and should have the moral courage of tolerance and forgiving the insulters. Because they will receive huge reward from their Lord the Prophet said: “Be compassionate to those on earth and He, who is in the heavens, will be compassionate to you” (Sahi Bukhari)

The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in a hadith regarding evil said theat that his followers first must establish a true Islamic society based on the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah It further commands them to defend the society against all possible evils with whatever available resources they have. Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said: “When the people see a wrong doer committing a wrong and do not seize his hand, it is most likely that Allah will inflict them with His punishment” (Tirmizi). This involves use of physical force or verbal rejection or at least condemning it from heart, though it is the lowest degree of faith of a believer. Believers should remember that struggle against evil is a constant phenomenon as the ultimate source of evils is Satan: “Verily Satan is an avowed enemy to man” (12:5)

Eradication of evil involves struggle of varying degrees depending on the available resources with the Muslim community and government. A Muslim must physically stop evil or attack it verbally, or at least have feelings of resentment for it. If sufficient resources are available, then the Muslim state may permit physical Jehad: “Believers……….. Strive hard in God’s way with their possessions and their own selves” (49:15) Otherwise, evil may be suppressed through speech or writings, and in case an individual believer is unable to utilize either resource, he is required to shun evil internally. The best way of doing this might be to seek God’s refuge: “Say I seek refuge with the Lord of day-break. From the evil of the things created” (al- Falaq)

 

 

Q3: Revealed books

Answer: Belief in the book revealed by Allah is one of the most important articles of Islamic faith. It is mandatory to believe that they are revealed and send down by Allah to his messengers and Prophets. Belief in the books is of two levels that are general and particular. The general belief in the books of Allah entails believing in all the books sent down to any of Allah’s messenger whether we know them by name or not.

As far as the particular believe in the books of Allah, we must believe in books or scriptures that are mentions in the Holy Quran by name. They are the Sahifas (scrolls) of Hazrat Ibrahim (A.S) mentioned in the Holy Quran in Surah Al-Ala verse number 19. The Torah of Hazrat Musa (A.S) mentioned in Surah Al-Maidah verse number 46. Zabur of Hazrat Daud (A.S) mentioned in Surah An-Nisa verse number 163. Injeel of Hazrat Isa (A.S) mention in Surah Al-Maidah verse 47 and the Holy Quran of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) mentioned in Surah Al-Anaam verse number 19. This means that a Muslim cannot be righteous and true believer without having true faith not only in the Quran but also in all other scriptures revealed before him (S.A.W). Allah says in the Holy Quran: “It is He Who has sent down the Book (the Qur’an) to you (Muhammad SAW) with truth, confirming what came before it. And he sent down the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel).” (3:3) All the previous books either Torah or Injeel which were revealed before Holy Prophet (S.A.W) to Hazrat Musa and Isa (A.S) has been corrupted and Holy Quran is the only book which was written, preserved and compiled without any corruption into one book form, because Allah took the responsibility of guarding the Holy Quran by Himself. As Allah says in the Holy Quran: “Verily We: It is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Qur’an) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption)” (15:9)

Allah revealed the books to the humans by secessions of Prophetic messengers. The book or scripture revealed to the Prophet is a point of reference to learn the religion and obligations towards God and self-human beings. Allah revealed Himself and explains the purpose of human creations through revealed books or scriptures. These books were guiding light which the messengers received to show to their respective people or a particular community; but the glorious Holy Quran which was revealed to our beloved Holy Prophet (S.A.W) who is the seal of the Prophets. The guidance of the Holy Quran is not for particular people or nation but instead is the guidance for all humanity or all mankind. As the Holy Quran says: “The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong)……….” (2:185)

The uniqueness of Quran has been mentioned in various place of the Quran for instance: “This is the Book (the Qur’an), whereof there is no doubt, guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqûn [the pious and righteous persons who fear Allah………….” (2:2). the message from the God to his Prophets in the form of books or Sahifas, they are not allowed by men to oppose or over step them. No divine scripture or book exists today in the original language and form because they were abrogated and changed that is why they were not protected from corruption. They underwent distortion, addition and omission. In this regard Allah says: “Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands and then say, “This is from Allah,” to purchase with it a little price! Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for that they earn thereby.” (2:79)

Amongst these divine books the only divine, authentic and complete and un-corrupted book which exists on this globe today is the Holy Quran revealed by Allah to our beloved Prophet (S.A.W). The Holy Quran is confirming scripture that is before it and stands as a guardian over it. As Allah says in the Holy Quran: “……Has not a clear sign come to them (confirming) of all that in the former books of revelation?” (20:133)

 

 

 

 

Q1: Life after Death

Answer: Belief in Resurrection after death and the last day is one of the fundamental beliefs in Islamic faith this covers two parts: The first one is the believe in the day of Judgment, it is believed in Islam that this world is onlytemporary and we are all merely passing through it. Our final destination is here after or after life. We are only given this life as a chance for us to do good, to worship Allah (SWT) and to live our lives in accordance with the teaching of Quran and Sunnah. Every one of us is endowed with our own free will, thus we had the freedom to do and chose to what to do with our lives attain eternal life. All of these will matter on the day that the world will come to the end. When itWill happen? No one knows accept Allah (SWT), those who deny the hereafter, Allah (SWT) warned them by saying: “How can you disbelieve in Allah? Seeing that you were dead and He gave you life. Then He will give you death, and then again will bring you to life (on the Day of Resurrection) and then onto Him you will return.” (2:28).

This verse summarizes Allah’s (SWT) absolute power of giving life and death and urges as to strengthen our faith in him. This also means that death is just an important phase in our journey to live an eternal life after the final judgment. There are signs of immense and eminent end of this world explained in the Holy Quran and the concept and outcome of the Day of Judgment also being given in the Holy Quran. That day will start by the first blow of the trumpet of the angel Hazrat Israfeel (A.S), “The Quran says: “then when one blast is sounded on the trumpet and the earth is moved and its mountain is crushed to powder at one stroke on that day shall the great event come to pass” (69. Al-Haaqqa (The Reality)) on the last day the sun will be folded up, the stars will lose their luster and fall, and the ocean will boil over. As the Surah tell us how the earth would be shaken to its depths, and the hills will be ground to powder such that they became powder dust then Hazrat Israfeel will blow third trumpet .On the third trumpet everyone will be restricted from the dead at the end of the time, “and there will come forth every soul, with each will be an angel to drive and an angel to be a witness” (50:21).

The second part is believed on the Day of Judgment following the resurrection. Everybody will join the vast assembly gathers on the plain of Arafat. Now all the Humans will stand one by one for accountability of all their deed in worldly life. Allah (SWT) will set the scale of ultimate justice known as the Mezaan and the body organ of each will individually speak (witness) to tell the details of deeds and finally according to the deed that is good or bad people will be awarded or punish and this will know as Yaum -ul-Jaza. When the judgment is finished, a bridge will be stretched over the top of the pit of Hell. This bridge, called the Sirat, will lead to Paradise which will be on the other side. Everyone will have to cross this bridge. The Prophets and the righteous people will zoom right over and enter Paradise. The treading of the bridge by the people will be based on the nature and enormity of their good or bad deeds. The two states of Heaven and Hell are not spiritual. They will be experienced in physical forms by the new bodies with which Allah will raise men up.

The good ones will be sent in the heaven and the bad ones will be sent into hell forever and ever but forever and ever is for the polytheist, atheist, and the Muslims after completing their punishment will be taken out from hell and will be sent into Jannah. The Holy Quran says: “guardians of eternity will they enter………” (35:33) and in another in the Holy Quran Allah (SWT) says: “but he who’s balance (of good deeds) will be light will live in a bottom less pit (it is a fire blowing fiercely)”. (Al-Quran)

 

 

 

 

Q2: Predestination and decree

Answer: Belief in Predestination and Decree (Al-Qadha & Al-Qadar) forms an ingredient of Islamic faith. Belief in Predestination and Decree is mentioned in the Holy Quran in the Iman-e-Mufassal which says ‘’I believe in Allah, in His angels, in His books, in His prophets, in the Last Day and in the fact that everything, good or bad, is decided by Allah Almighty and in the life after death.’’

This means that everything, good or bad, is decided by Allah, is an article of faith and without this our faith is not complete. Faith in predestination means that we believe in our heart and confess with our tongue that the Most High Allah has decreed all things; whatever happens in the world whether it is concerning the conditions and operations of things, good and evil, obedience and disobedience, faith and infidelity (unfaithful), sickness and health, wealth and poverty, life and death is contained in the written tablet of the decrees of Allah which is called the Loh-e-Mahfooz.

The belief in Divine predestination includes belief in 4 things:

1. Allah is the creator of everything.

2. Allah knows everything; what has, is and will happen.

3. Allah has recorded all that has passed, all that is happening and all that will happen.

4. Whatever Allah wills, happens and whatever He wills not, does not happen.

 

According to the Muslim Faith, Allah is the sole Creator and Cherisher (care for something or someone) of the universe. His power is not limited in any sphere. The Qur’an says: ‘’ verily Allah has power over everything.” Therefore it will not be wrong to say that God not only has knowledge of each and every affair of the entire universe but also all the matters and occurrences are under His control. We ourselves can see the Divine Will in many objects and phenomena around us. The Qur’an invites us to appreciate by saying: ‘’It is not permitted to the sun to catch up to the moon, nor can the night outstrip the day; each just swims along in its own orbit (according to the Divine Will)’’ (36:40). These are demonstrations of Allah’s unlimited power and command.

Similarly, man, the most supreme creation of Allah is no exception to this Divine Will. Humans have been granted liberty and free will, but at the same time they are subservient (submissive) to the laws of nature. We should know that that our Creator has knowledge of everything and has command over us and so it should be our duty to submit to His Will. The Qur’an reminds us by saying: ‘’We indeed created man and We know what dark suggestions his soul makes to him; for We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.’’ (50:16). This simply means that Allah knows even the innermost desires and motives of man better than man himself so it becomes clear that in spite of enjoying free will, our destinies and decisions are under the ultimate Divine predestination. Allah has predestined the span of every person’s life, their share of good and ill fortune and the fruits of their efforts in accordance with His eternal knowledge. This is to say that He has ordained (designed) the things as they were to take place in this world and in the life to come. This however does not imply that whatever we do is predestined to be done by us and we have no freedom of action. For example, if Allah has predestined an evil thing to a Peron, it was so because the person had chosen to commit that evil thing when he had a choice of not doing it. If he were to do a pious deed, All-Knowing Allah would have predestined that pious deed to have been done by that person. No one is forced to do a certain thing because of its predestination. Allah has given every human the ability to do good or bad in life. People decide what to do, but Allah has knowledge of our deeds even before we were created. He knew what we could and would do but does not make us do it.

While Allah has given free choice to people, man has also been shown the correct way by means of revelation through His prophets. Man has the final choice to accept or decline this Divine guidance. His choice rests on his will as the Qur’an says: ‘’ Surely, We have shown him the way, whether he be grateful or ungrateful (rests on his will)’’ (76:3).

 

 

 

Rightly guided caliphs and Muslim states:

 

During the period of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, generally speaking, the constitutional principles deduced from the Sunnah (Practice) of the Holy Prophet were followed. But the most significant constitutional principle added to Muslim polity through the Sunnah of the Rightly Guided Caliphs was the multiplicity of methods of appointment of the Head of the State (Khalifah). The principle in essence was that the appointment must be made with the approval of the Muslim community, and the concept of hereditary succession was specifically excluded. The adoption of different modes of appointment indicated that any mode could be adopted to suit the prevailing conditions so long as it was democratic, efficient and based on wisdom. However it was not generally realized that owing to the expansion of Islamic territories it had become necessary to obtain the approval of the entire Muslim community settled in numerous big cities other than Medina (the Capital). If this modification had been made in the basic principle of appointment, the objection of Mu‘awiyah respecting Caliph ‘Ali’s election might have not been raised.

 

It is abundantly clear that the real emphasis of Islam is on the establishment of a Community of Faith being governed exclusively by the Shari‘ah. But the republican political order introduced as a political system in the state under the Sunnah (Practice) of the Rightly Guided Caliphs had no spiritual or religious significance. It had its importance only because it followed immediately after the death of the Holy Prophet and was evolved by his closest Companions. However, it collapsed owing to numerous reasons. Some of these are:

First, the republican political system contained in itself the possibility of its transformation into a hereditary/dynastic monarchy.

Second, the Khalifah was presumably appointed for life, but no legal methodology was evolved for his impeachment or deposition in case such a need arose.

Third, as the ancient tribal rivalries disseminated suspicion and hatred, the differences of opinion among the various political groups took the form of militant confrontation and the struggle for power led to a civil war.

Fourth, three out of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs namely ‘Umar, Uthman and ‘Ali were assassinated. Caliphs ‘Umar and ‘Ali were murdered in the mosque – an exposed place for any popularly elected Muslim Head of the State, making him extremely vulnerable, particularly when no arrangements had been made for his security. There was neither any garrison present in Medina nor guards had been deputed for the protection of the house and person of Caliph Uthman. Caliph ‘Ali was assassinated in accordance with a well-planned conspiracy of the Khawarij, the political group which adopted terrorist methods for accomplishing their objectives.

It is a generally accepted principle that great men make history. The four Rightly Guided Caliphs, who laid down the foundations of republican Islam, were certainly the greatest men Islam has produced after the Holy Prophet. But great men make history only if they have the support and co-operation of the people united behind them. The efforts of the Rightly Guided Caliphs for the permanent democratisation of Islam failed, not because of any lapse on their part, but owing to the failure of the Muslim peoples of those times to realise that democracy had its own discipline. If they had understood this political message, very ably projected by the Rightly Guided Caliphs, the “shura” could have developed into a representative institution and the process of “Ijtihad” might have been initiated in the form of law-making through “Ijma‘” (Consensus of the Community). But the Muslims divided themselves into numerous intolerant and fanatical religio-political groups and under the general policy of “if you are not with us you are against us” these groups actually fought against and ruthlessly slaughtered one another. Ameer ‘Ali rightly observes that with Caliph ‘Ali ended the republic of Islam, and he closes the chapter of his book with a quotation of Oelsner to the following effect: “Thus vanished the popular regime, which had for its basis a patriarchal simplicity, never again to appear among any Mussulman nation”.

 

 

Q: What is the main feature of the Muslims belief in the Unity and oneness of Allah? [10]

Answer: Our creed is to believe in Allah because faith in the existence of God is a natural disposition in man. Everything existent in a definite order as a maker to it, if we ponder over the universe, surveying all that it contains, we certainly will realize that it did not came into existence as a matter of chance; it must have a creator to it. Islam demands all human beings to believe in that creator as one Allah. As the Holy Quran says: “……It is righteousness to believe in Allah and His Holy Prophet (S.A.W)……” (2:177). It abolishes the concept of trinity, as well as the worship of other God besides or along with Allah (SWT). Even the most intelligent of the minds cannot form a definite and a true perception of Allah (SWT) pertaining to His characteristics other than what have been defined by Allah (SWT) and His Prophet (S.A.W). As Allah says in the Holy Quran: “Say (O Muhammad (S.A.W)): “He is Allah, (the) One. Allah-us-Samad (The Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, He neither eats nor drinks). He begets not, nor was He begotten; and there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him” (112:1-4). He is one divine power Who is far beyond the perception of human mind. Allah’s knowledge surpasses all what is possessed by His creatures. As the Holy Quran says “……And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills………” (2:255) He has created everything in unique precision and order, and there is no other creator but Him. Allah’s supernatural attributes include His eternalness, His matchless power, His supreme knowledge, His grace, compassion, forgiveness and mercy etc. Allah is independent of all needs, while everything he created is depended upon Him. With regards to Allah’s limitless power and supreme knowledge the Quran says “……… He creates what He wills. And it is He Who is the All-knowing, the All-powerful (i.e. Able to do all things)……….” (30:54-55) and again in Surah Anaam it says “And with Him are the keys of the Ghaib (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in (or on) the earth and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but he knows it………” (6:59) All the natural and divine characteristics of Allah (SWT) are only possessed by Him, thus perfecting the concept of Unity and oneness of Allah (SWT) He created mankind to worship Him of which only He is worthy to. The divine Principle of creation necessitates that beliefs have authority over physical activities; consequently the corruption of such activities arises from the corruption of beliefs themselves. The Holy Quran says: “No son (or offspring or children) did Allah beget, nor is there any ilâh (god) along with Him; (if there had been many gods), behold, each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others!” (23:91) His being supreme and above the grip of time and space is beautifully mentioned in the Holy Quran: “He is the first and the last, evident and the hidden……” (57:3)

 

 

b) Why the belief in Tawheed is important for the Muslims in daily life? [4]

 

 

Answer: Muslims belief in Tawheed which means to belief in only one God. This means that we should always remember that Allah Who created us and is sustaining us will call us back one day for accountability and that He will be the master of the Day of Judgment. On that day nobody dare to intercede as the verse of the Throne says “Who is there who can intercede in His presence except as He permits” (Al-Quran).

So a true belief in Tawheed, the believers gain independence and freedom. The distressful submission of the people to the kings, tyrannical leaders and religious authorities which takes control of their lives, come from their ignorance of the divine creator. So a true belief in Tawheed infuses in us a spirit of submission, obedience and thankfulness so that we can remember Him by avoiding all these acts that are likely to displease Him. If Muslims are obedient to Allah, they will be rewarded if they go against His teachings they will be punished in the first phase upon dyeing and into eternal place called Grave where the two angels Munkir Nakeer will ask the questions.

 

 

Question: Name the six collections of Sunni Hadis books and four Shia compilations of Hadis ? Discuss their main features?

 

 

Answer: There are six major collections of Sunni Hadis books also called Sahih Al-Sitta.

Sahih Al-Bukhari (194-256 A.H): It was compiled by Imam Muhammad Bin Ismail Al-Bukhari. It is considered to be the most authentic book of Hadis after the Holy Quran. In the compilation of this book of Sahih Al-Bukhari, Imam Bukhari displayed a great critical ability and scrupulous accuracy. The total number of Ahadis in this book is 9082 (which was selected from 600000 Ahadis). However many of them were repeated with different Isnad. Without repetition the number goes down to 2602 Ahadis. His criteria for acceptance into the collection were amongst the most stringent of all the scholars of Ahadith.

 

Sahih Muslim (204-264 A.H): It was compiled by Imam Muslim bin Hajjah and this is considered second only to the Sahih al-Bukhari. These two collections Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim are collectively called Al-Sahihain, the two most authentic collections. Any tradition accepted by both Bukhari and Muslim has been termed as Agreed Upon. Imam Muslim, he traveled widely to gather his collection of Ahadith (plural of Hadith), including to Iraq, the Arabian Peninsula, Syria and Egypt. Out of 300,000 Hadith which he evaluated, approximately 4,000 were extracted for inclusion into his collection based on stringent acceptance criteria.

Sunan Abu Daud (202-275 A.H): Abu Da’ud was another important compiler of hadith. Before writing his Sunan he examined five lakhs of traditions, and selected from them only 4800 to be put in his book. The whole task took him 20 years to complete. He kept up the scrupulous exactitude of his predecessors in reproducing the traditions, which he had collected. But he differed from them in the standard of his choice. He included in his Sunan not only the ‘genuine’ traditions (as al-Bukhari and Muslim had done), but also such traditions as had been pronounced by some traditionists to be weak and doubtful.

 

Jame/ Sunan Tirmizi (209-279 A.H): It was compiled by Abu Isa al-Tirmizi. He was the first man to determine the names, surnames, and title of the narrators of traditions and tide to fix the degree of their reliability by inventing peculiar means of each tradition. His work is divided into 50 chapters (Kutub) and contains 3956 Ahadis.Abu Isa al Tirmizi was a student of Abu Da’ud and his collection follows and improves upon the techniques of classifying the hadith as proposed by his master. Jame of Tirmizi contains all the traditions – legal, dogmatic and historical – that had been accepted by the Muslim jurists of one school or another, as the basis of Islamic law.

 

Sunan Ibne Majah (209-273 A.H): Ibn Majah travelled widely to collect traditions from the well-known Traditionists of his time. He compiled several works of Hadith of which the most important is the Sunan. In this work, Ibn Majah collected together 4000 traditions in 32 books divided into 1500 chapters. The number of weak (dhaif) traditions it contains is not very large, just about 30. But it does contain some traditions, which are considered by the authorities on the subject to be forged (maudu’).

 

Sunan Nasai (214-303 A.H): Al Nasai’ collected hadith in his work Sunan He entirely ignored the point of view of his senior contemporary, al-Tirmizi on the question of the application of traditions to various problems that might have been made by different schools of the Muslim juriprudence. His main object was to establish the text of traditions and the differences between their various versions, which he quotes extensively. In many places, he gives headings to the differences between the various narrators. This book contains 5662 Ahadis and is divided well into chapters. Imam Nasai is the best evaluator of the narrators of his time.

 

1. Kitab Al-Kafi: Compiled by Muhammad Yaqub Kulayni in the third century Hijra, it is divided into three sections:

• Usulal-Kafi which is concerned with the principle of religion.

• Furual-Kafi which is concerned with religious laws.

• Rawadatal-Kafi which is concerned with the various religious aspects and includes some writings of the Imams in total.

Al-Kafi comprises of about 16000 narrations. The author states that this book would be sufficient for all the needs of the believers as it included all branched of religious knowledge. 2. Manla Yahduruhula-

2. Faqih: Compiled by Muhammad ibne Ali al-Qummi in the 4th century Hijri contains over 9000 Hadis. The literal translation of the title Manla Yah duruhu Al-Faqih is “For him not in the presence of Jurisprudence”. The book is meant to be a reference book to help ordinary Shia Muslims in the practice of the legal requirements of Islam. In this book Isnads are absent

3. Tahdhibal-Ahkamfi Sharhal-Muqni’a: Compiled by Sheikh Tusi in the 5th century Hijri contain over 13000 narrations means “The Refinement of the laws in terms of explanation of the sufficiently”. It contains not only traditions but also lengthy discussions about the legal standing and implications of each Hadis. The chapters are well divided and contain the commentaries by some earlier scholars.

4. Istibsarfima’ Khatalafal-Akhbar: Compiled by Sheikh Tusi in the 5th century Hijri and contains over 5000 narrations. Its methods are similar but briefer: there are not so many traditions used in the work and the explanations are more concise. It is similar to Man la Yahdurulual Faqih, but gives full Isnads for the traditions quoted intended to be used as ready reference works for students and scholars

 

 

 

B) Question: Why the belief in the Pre-Destination and Decree of Allah (SWT) is important for Muslims in daily life? [4]

Answer: This important belief develops the dependence on Allah (SWT) when doing any action, because both the cause and the effects are the result of Allah’s (SWT) Decree, this produces ease of mind and comfort, because when the individual knows that everything is by Allah’s (SWT) Decree and that mishaps are going to take place anyway, his soul will be at ease and his heart will be satisfied with the Allah’s Decree. No one has a more comfort able life, worry-free soul, and stronger confidence then a believer. The most important things is that believe in the Qadha and Qadr produce a sense of freedom from worry and Bowdon in case of failure or mishaps, because that is by Allah’s Decree, the one who possess the Heaven and the Earth: “We indeed created men and we know dark suggestion his soul makes to him: for we are nearer to Him then his juggler vain” (50:16)

 

b) Question: Why the belief in Resurrection and the Last day is important for Muslims in daily life? [4]

Answer: The virtues of believing in the Day of Judgment inculcate a true fear of Allah (SWT) (in the hearts of Muslims) who is not only most mercy full but also the master of the Day of Judgment, if we adopt such faith then we will give our best to be pious, pure, disciplined, fearing, and compassionate with a strong belief that Allah (SWT) will give reward of even the smallest act of good deed and vice versa. If the whole society or the whole Ummah develops such faith, it will be a source of great comfort and prosperity. In the absence of such belief, there will be no deterrence to evil, sin, crime, and transgression, and this will lead only to chaos, disturbance and injustice in the world. An unshaken faith in the hereafter enables a believer to bear sufferings in this world and to remain steadfast: “Then anyone who has done an atom’s wait of good, shall see it. And anyone who has done an atom’s waits of evil shall see it” (99. Az-Zalzal)

 

b) Question: Why the belief in the Books of Allah (SWT) is important for Muslims in daily life? [4]

Answer: The virtues of believing in the Books of Allah (SWT) develops appreciation toward Allah’s (SWT) mercy and care for his people in that he sent down a book to every nation as a source of guidance this belief also produce love toward Allah’s (SWT) wisdom, he revealed in these Books every nation that which suits them. The glorious Quran is the final book and it is suitable to all people at all times until the Day of Judgment. This belief in Allah’s (SWT) book is to shown gratitude to Allah’s mercy in revealing these Books. Thus the beliefin the

Quran is indeed a belief in the earlier revelation because the Quran confirm these earlier scriptures: “We have explained in detail in this Quran, for the benefit of mankind, every kind of similitude…….” (18:54)

 

Q3:Why is the Qur’an important to Muslims? [10]

3:S The Holy Quran is the last sacred book of Allah which is the only book which is pure scripture in its true form. The Holy Quran is not just a book; it is a book of warning from Allah Al-Mighty. It is a book of warnings, directives and instructions revealed for the guidance and betterment for mankind for all times. The Quran says “Blessed is He who sent down the criterion to His servant, that it may be an admonition to all creatures” (25:1). The central theme of the Quran is the Tawheed, belief in messengers, belief in the Hereafter and the designation of man as Allah’s deputy. The Quran talks about the origin of the man (96:1-5) the structure of the earth and heavens. It talks about the past civilizations and criticizes the conduct of different nations. The Quran contains directives for the head of the state as well as for common man, rich and as well for the poor, for peace as well as war, for spiritual well being as well as material prosperity.
The Holy Quran commands to educate and convince people about the usefulness of its injunctions. The Quran lays down the rules and regulations relating to life ” Surely , we have send down to you [O Muhammad (S.A.W)] the book [this Quran] in truth that you might judge between men by that which Allah has shown you (that is has taught you throw divine inspiration) , so we not pleader for the treacherous ” (4:105) Islamic law assess individual actions as they relate to fundamental values that each law tries to preserve, ranging from individual well-being to property and wealth, these values are on the basis of Islamic principles of moral thoughts and action. The five fundamental principles are the heart of Islamic law represents values of accountability and public order protected by jurisprudence as the Quran says: “we have explained in this Quran for the benefit of mankind”(39:2): life, religion, reason/mental faculty, property, and progeny. From an Islamic legal point of view, civil society is governed by laws that regulate the financial and family relationships that exist in the public sphere. Criminal behavior is also an issue that received extensive treatment in books on Islamic law. The scripture of Islam is, by contrast, rather limited in its specification of particular punishments for criminal acts. According to the text of the Quran, few crimes have prescribed punishments. These include apostasy, theft, adultery, murder, slander, highway robbery, and the consumption of alcohol. Looking at Islamic law as a whole, it becomes clear that laws regulating punishment for criminal behavior are meant to preserve the values enumerated above. These five “fundamentals” are the values upon which the philosophy of Islamic law is based.
The Holy Quran talks about the pillars of Islam e.g. it says: “And they have been commanded no more than this: to worship Allah offering Him sincere devotion, been true (in faith) to establish regular prayer; and to practice regular charity; and that is the religion right and straight.” (98:5). The Holy Quran also gives the honor to make treaties with other nations and to conduct international relations with peaceful means. The Quranic principals on the conduct of war prohibit the killing of women and children; waging a war of aggression; destroying places of domicile; and killing prisoners of war etc. The Holy Quran requires Muslims abide by their contracts because they would be made to account in the Hereafter for the promises that they have made. So Quran as provided and regulate our lives in accordance with its command: “Verily this Quran doth guide to that which is more right (or stable) ………..” (17:9).

 

Q1: Describe What do you know about the Structure Of the Holy Quran?


The Holy Quran is composed of words and teachings which are of Allah (S.W.T) Himself. He alone is the author and protector of Holy Quran. Allah himself decided upon and set all the teachings contained in it the words of the holy Quran are the written expressions of Allah al-mighty through which he communicates with mankind no one have the ability to produce book like the holy Quran as Allah says in holy Quran “ even if human beigns and jinn’s should cooperate with one and other to bring forth the book like holy Quran , they would never be able to bring anything like it , even though they all helped one and other”(81:27)
The expressions and the teachings of the holy Quran are unchangeable no body among the humans and the jinn’s as the ability to change it because the Quran will always will be protected from change and alternations or as Allah said in Holy Quran “we have without doubt sent down the message; and we will assuredly guard it (from corruption) (15:9). The purity of of the holy Quran has been preserved since the last 1400 years which is the clear testimony of the Quran’s divine nature.
All distinct features of holy Quran are directives and the instructions contained in the holy Quran are of universal and addressed to all people of all ages “we have explained in this Quran for the benefit of mankind”(39:2) while God revealed old books for particular nation for a particular period. So Quran is the last and perfect book of Allah it is comprehensive book ,it deals with every aspect of life as Allah says in the holy Quran: “This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favors upon you and chosen for you Islam as your religion”(5:3).The earlier books contain only a code or morality and justices, but none was comprehensive to contain a complete code of life so undoubtedly the Holy Quran says “This is an Admonition to all the people of the world……..”(81:27)
There are several places in the holy Quran where the stories of the previous Prophets and nation have been narrated by the Allah al-mighty these stories that the Quran narrates to us are true and not fantasy for e.g…the story of Prophet mosses and pharaoh is true for Allah said in the holy Quran “ we recites to you some of the news of the Moses and Pharaoh and truth “ (28:3) these stories are intended for mankind or severe consequences if they failed to obey Allah similar to those who refuses to obey him.
There are several matters which are concern to all yet they cannot be interpreted by human mind logically on its own as Allah says in holy Quran “these are announcements of the unseen……” (11:49) Allah alone himself expertly deals with the unseen things and revealed to us in the holy Quran and gives reasonable explanation to us for e.g. the creations of the universe, life after death, etc. As Allah says in Holy Quran: “and He had set firm the mountains on the earth so that it would not shake with you ….” (16:15)
When certain scientific concepts mentioned in the Quran are studied in the light of 21st century scientific discoveries which were unknown to us like the Quran tells us about three developmental stages of human embryo, which only recently the scientists have discovered.

Question: Describe three examples from the life of the Prophet and the Rightly Guided Caliphs that show the relations between the early Muslim state and other states. [10


Answer: The guiding principle relationship between the early Muslim state and other states were lead down by the Holy Quran, implemented by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) between 622 A.D and 632 A.D and finalized by The Rightly Guided Caliphs in 632 A.D till 661 A.D.
The Holy Prophet (S.AW) had established the first re-public after immigrating to Medina in 622 A.D. Thus Medina emerged as a city-state vis-à-vis the tribal state of Makkah. He signed a treaty with the non-Muslims of Medina in 622 A.D called the charter of Medina through which he gave them all rights of humanism. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) wanted to preach the divine message in a peaceful manner but the Makkans had adopted a hostile attitude towards him and wanted to dislodge him from Madinah. Consequently the city state of Madinah was attacked and besieged on three major occasions- Badr (624 A.D), Uhad (625 A.D) and Trench (627 A.D). The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) therefore had to fight to defend the Islamic state against those who wished to wipe it out. He (S.A.W) then signed a ten year peace treaty (Treaty of Hudaibiya) with the Makkans in 6 A.H (628 A.D). The treaty was however violated by the Quraish of Makkah and the Prophet (S.A.W) undertook offensive measures against them in 630 A.D. He entered his naked town in an incredibly peaceful way. He declared general amnesty on this epic making occasion. With this conduct he not only conquered a city but also won the hearts of his fatal enemies.
The moral principal underlying all these occasions was to nourish and nurture a community of believers that would not indulge in any kind or degree of oppression in the light of the following Quranic verse: “That house of the Hereafter we shall give to those who intent not high-handedness or mischief on earth” (28:83). His city state of Madinah therefore never encouraged or practiced any mischievous activity or high-handedness.
Another example illustrating Holy Prophet (S.A.W) policy as the head of the state in Madinah towards other states was set in 7 A.H (629 A.D), about one year after the signing of the Hudaibiya pact. The Prophet (S.A.W) wrote letters to a number of neighboring emperors and rulers and invited them in a cordial and graceful manner to the new faith. These rulers including the king of Persia, Khusro Parvez, Hercules Kaiser of Rome, Negus the king of Abyssinia, Muqawqus the Roman governor of Egypt and many others. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) received varying replies from these rulers. The Persian king Khusro not only insulted the envoy but also tore the letter of the Prophet (S.A.W). The Prophet (S.A.W) however demonstrated outmost degree of self restrained and forbearance and did not lose hope. In the long run, however his efforts begin to bear fruits as the message of Islam would start illuminating these countries in the years to come. He fought defensive battles and led armies against the enemies of Islam. He however did so only after receiving divine permission for that. Then he treated the captives of anti-Islamic forces in such a way that he was able to rule over their hearts. He enters into truce with the rivals and accepted apparently hard terms only for the sake of his noble mission.
The Rightly Guided caliphs also continued to show generosity towards the non-Muslim citizens and states following the footsteps of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A) during his caliphate (632-634 A.D) maintained the integrity which was established by Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). The state of Medina having a vast population of non-Muslims was provided with special rights. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) gave the surety of the protection of their life, property, respect and religion was the duty of the Government. Nobody was allowed to violate their rights until unless they or the Muslims exploited the rights. Hazrat Abu Bakr maintained the respect of the Charter of Medina signed by Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) in 622 A.D first year of Hijra. The second caliph Hazrat Umar (634-644 A.D) set one of the noblest precedence in the entire world history. When he entered Jerusalem as a victor he refused to offer prayer inside the church. He justified this gentle gesture by saying that he simply did not want to set a trend for his successors to forcibly convert the worship places of non-Muslims into Mosques. This was absolutely in line with the glorious Quranic injunction: “Let there be no compulsion in religion” (2:256)
These examples set by the Prophet (S.A.W) and his successors (the caliphs) provides a glaring example that can provide enlightenment to all the Muslims rulers of the contemporary world that they should also take special care of the temple and other worship places of non-Muslims 
living in their country as a religious minority.

 

Question: Give an account of the events of the Prophet’s (S.A.W) night journey and ascension [‘Isra wa-mi’raj]? [10]

Answer: Isra’ and Mi’raj are about the outcome of the Prophet’s journey to At-Taif. A few weeks later after he returned to Makkah, he made the greatest journey ever in the history of humanity; the event of Isra’ and Mi’raj is recorded in Al-Quran and Ahadith. It is the miraculous night journey of our Noble Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W), which consists of two phases. Phase onecovers his trip from Makkah to Jerusalem, known as Al Isra’, and phase two covers his ascent from Jerusalem into the Heavens, known as Al Mi’raj. It is the opinion of some of the historians that the Prophet went on this remarkable journey on the 27th night of Rajab (seventh month of the Islamic Calendar).

Some significant suggestive incidents featured the night journey ‘Isra wa-mi’raj’ of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) which could be mentioned as: it happened in one night when the Prophet (S.A.W) was awakened by Jibrael (A.S). The Prophet’s (S.A.W) chest was cleft by Jibrael (A.S), his heart extracted and washed with the water of ZamZam. After this Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) performed the tawaf of the Kaabah, he (S.A.W) Al-Buraq which is going to be his means of transportation at first from the Holy mosque to the Aqsa mosque. Anas Ibn-Malik provides a description of Al-Buraq, ‘Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) entered the mosque. The mosque was amazingly full of the Prophets of Allah (S.W.T) from the time of Adam (A.S) until Jesus (A.S). All of the Prophets stood aligned to pray. They were waiting for what Gabriel had to say. Gabriel asked Muhammad (S.A.W) to lead the prayer and they all prayed two Raka’a(s) (Islamic prayers). This journey from Makkah to Jerusalem (Aqsa mosque) is called Isra. Anas Ibn-Malik narrates: ‘Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) said, “I prayed two Raka’a(s) in it, and then came out and Gabriel brought me a vessel of wine and a vessel of milk. I chose the milk, and Gabriel said: You have chosen the natural thing.”‘ (Muslim)

Muhammad (S.A.W) started his ascension journey of Al-Mi’raj from a rock which became known as Al-Mi’raj rock in Jerusalem’s Al-Aqsa Mosque. In an authentic Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadis, the Prophet (S.A.W) says, “Then he took my hand and ascended with me to the nearest heaven, when I reached the nearest heaven, Gabriel said to the gatekeeper of the heaven, ‘Open (the gate).’ The gatekeeper asked, ‘Who is it?’ Gabriel answered: ‘Gabriel.’ He asked, ‘Is there anyone with you?’ Gabriel replied, ‘Yes, Muhammad is with me.’ He asked, ‘Has he been called?’ Gabriel said, ‘Yes.’ So the gate was opened and we went over the nearest heaven and there we (S.A.W) Hazrat Adam (A.S) he said, ‘Welcome! O pious Prophet and pious son. Then, we ascended to the second heaven when I entered, Jesus son of Mary, (AS) and John, son of Zakariya, (AS welcomed me. Then, I was taken to the third heaven and I (S.A.W) Joseph (AS) who had been given half of (World’s) beauty he welcomed me. Then he ascended to the fourth heaven and lo! Idris (Enoch) was there. Then, he ascended with us to the fifth heaven I was with Harun (Aaron-AS). Then, I was taken to the sixth heaven. I was with Moses (AS). Then, I was taken up to the seventh heaven. I found Abraham (AS) who said ‘Welcome! O pious Prophet and pious son.

Prophet (S.A.W) (S.A.W) Al-Bayt al-Ma’mur (The Much-Frequented House), Prophet Mohammad said, “Seventy thousand angels enter into it (al-Bayt al- Ma’mur) daily and, after they come out, they never return again.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari) The Prophet ((S.A.W)S) (S.A.W) crowds and crowds of angels as he ascended. They were true worshippers performing all parts of prayer—prostrating, kneeling, and standing The Prophet (S.A.W) (S.A.W) wonderful things. The Prophet (S.A.W) and Gabriel (AS) kept ascending, until they reached a point where Gabriel stopped. That was the farthest place Gabriel was allowed to reach; it was the Lote-Tree (Sidrat-ul-Muntaha meaning the Tree of the End). Jibrael (A.S) said to Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) “If I walk further, I will incinerate” (Sahih Bukhari).

The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) saw four manifest rivers, The River Nile and the River Euphrates and hidden ones, than he visited the Jannat. He had also the opportunity to see Malik, the guardian of Hell than the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) reached to a place called Lohe-Mahfooz where he could hear the scraping of pens as they wrote the destinies of mankind. From there the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) reached Arsh-e-MuAllah there the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) was addressed by Allah and Allah (SWT) said to him, “Muhammad! I have enjoined on your Ummah FIVE prayers daily.”

After this the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) started descending and he arrived back to Masjid-e-Aqsa and from Masjid-e-Aqsa back to Makkah. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) told that “On the way back to Makkah he (S.A.W) saw the camels of Makkan merchant having containers of water. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) drank the water” (Sahih Bukhari). Next morning the Prophet (S.A.W) told the story to Abu Jahl then decided to seize the opportunity to ridicule the Prophet (S.A.W) and his message and asked Prophet Muhammad whether he would repeat the same story if he gathers the dwellers of Mecca, to which the Prophet (S.A.W) agreed. For the very first time, Abu-Jahl started to gather people to listen the Prophet (S.A.W) who narrated what happened with confidence. However, the people kept clapping their hands as a sign of disbelief and mockery. When Abu-Bakr (Prophet Mohammad’s closest companion) heard about this, he said his famous quotation “If he (Prophet Mohammad) had said that, then it is true. I believe what is far more than that. Allah says “……. pray to your Lord and slaughter (the sacrifice). Surely your antagonist is he who is without offspring” (Quran, 108: 1-3).

 

 

Question: Give a brief description of Prophet’s experiences in the caves? [10]
Answer: 
Cave of Hira:
The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) used to retreat into the cave of Hira which is 3 km from Makkah on mount Hira. The Prophet (S.A.W) used to meditate in cave of Hira praying to one God who created everything. As usual, One day in the month of Ramazan, when he was 40 years old he was meditating in the cave of Hira, in the year 610 A.D, he felt a presence of a being in the form of man, who came to him and said to him recite: Prophet (S.A.W) narrated this experience as “He (Jibrail) seized and squeezed me to such an extent that I was exhausted” (Sahi Bukhari). This action of squeezing was repeated three times and after third time, Jibrail (A.S) said: “Recite in the name of thy lord, who created. Created man from a congealed blood. Recite and your Lord is most bountiful. He, who taught man by the pen. Taught man what he knew not.”(96: 1-5). After this, the Prophet (S.A.W) recited the first verses of the last Book of Allah which were imprinted on his heart and mind. The Prophet (S.A.W) was surprised, and confused, started trembling and sweating because of the weight of the Divine revelation.
He ran out of the cave towards his house. When he looked back, he (S.A.W) Jibrail (A.S) in his true angelic form with his wings covering the horizon, and saying: “O Mohammad (S.A.W)! I am Jibrail (A.S) and you are the last Prophet of Allah.” (Ibn Hisham vol 1).The Holy Prophet(S.A.W) came back home and said to his wife Hazrat Bibi Khadija tul Kubra(R.A) “cover me up, cover me up”(Sahi Bukhari) because he was afraid, confused and trembling with fear.
Cave of Saur
When Quraish decided to kill The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) and they were planning, Allah informed his beloved Prophet (S.A.W) and commanded him to leave Makkah for Madinah. Allah says in the holy Quran: “They plot and plan and Allah too plans and the best planner is Allah.” (8:30).
So it was in 622 A.D, 13th year of dawah, and he was 52 years old, The Prophet (S.A.W) departed from Makkah with his life time friend Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddique (R.A) towards Madinah. Both of them proceeded southwards, clambered up to the lofty peaks of mount thawr, and decided to take refuge in the cave of Thawr. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) said to Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) “Let me go inside first to explore and be sure that it was save” Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) closed all holes with pieces torn from his cloths, cleaned it and asked Holy Prophet (S.A.W) to step in [Ibn Hisham 1/483] . As soon as Holy Prophet (S.A.W) entered the cave a spider wove a web and two doves made a nest and laid eggs and sat on them this was all done on the command of ALLAH. Some of the Quraishites horse men’s came up to the cave one of them went near to the cave, from the cave Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) looked over his head and he said to Holy Prophet (S.A.W) with the trembling heart “O Prophet of ALLAH they will see us, the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) in his heart God-inspired calmness replied: “Silence Abu Bakr! What do you think of those two with whom the Third is ALLAH” (Sahih Bukhari 1/516; Mukhtasr Seerat Ar-Rasool P.168) as the Quran says: “……….they were two in the cave and he said to his companion, have no fear for Allah is with us” (9:40). Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) sat down and Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) laid his head in Abu Bakr’s lap and fell asleep. Suddenly Abu Bakr’s foot was stung by a poisonous snake. It hurts so much that his tears fell on Prophet’s Face. The Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) immediately applied his Saliva on Abu Bakr’s foot and pain went off on the spot. They stayed in the Cave for Three Nights (youm al-jum`a, youm as-sabt, and youm al-ahad).


Question: Explain the significance of both of theseexperiences of the development of Islam? [4]
Answer: Prophet Muhammad’s (S.A.W) experience in the cave of Hira marked the initiation of his Prophet Hood. It was during this experience that the first revelation of the Holy Quran by Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) that brought into emergence a new faith which was destined to rule the world till the Day of Judgment. Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) first met archangel Jibrael (A.S) in the cave of Hira. It was after the experience of the first revelation in the cave of Hira that a new community came to life which was based on the concept of Oneness of one God and Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) as the last messenger of God. Following the first revelation Arabia witnessed a situation in which virtue fought with evil and after a passage of time, gained triumph over it and established itself not only in Arabia but also in many parts round the globe.
Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was protected and saved from capture through a miracle by Allah in the cave of Saur, this was the clear exhibition of the fact that he was under divine protection, and that Allah’s help was with him all the time. His safety at the cave of Saur meant the commencement of the Muslim era, and the growth of Islamic influence. When Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A) got worried after hearing the approaching footsteps of the enemy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) assured him of Allah’s security. This demonstrated the firm faith of Prophet (S.A.W) in Allah, and shows how it earns him the real protection of Allah. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A) proved by his conduct and actions, loyalty to Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) in the cave of Saur. He undertook Hijra to with the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) and stayed in the cave of Saur with him in spite of being well aware of the dangers involved. It was the cave of Saur when the neck of Islam was hanging by the threat of the spider’s web and Islam survived. The forbearance and faithfulness that Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) exercised in the cave of Saur he elated his position in the eyes of Allah and Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) and received the title ‘The companions of the cave’.

Q): How does believe in the following effect the personality of an individual?[10]
a) Oneness of Allah 
b) The Holy Prophet (S.A.W)
Answer: The first pillar of Islam is to make Shahadah which is a declaration of faith. This is to firmly believe in the heart and declares: “Ashhadu alla ilaaha illallaahu, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadur-Rasulullah” “I bear witness that there is no diety expect Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah” This is the Shahadah. It is the very basic of Islam. Once a person declares it, he becomes a Muslim. This declaration is the foundation and essence on which the whole structure of Islam has been built. It is the expression of this belief which differentiates a believer from a non-believer or atheist and it is by expressing these sentences that one enters the fold of Islam. By making this declaration, we believe and affirm that none deserves worship except Allah; we must stay steadfast upon this phrase and apply it in our practical life in letter and spirit and never associate any partners with Him. As the Quran says: “So know that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and ask forgiveness for your sins” (47:19)
The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) says: “Islam is built on five: To bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, the establishment of the prayer, giving the Zakkat, fasting the month of Ramzan, and Al-Hajj for whoever is able to bear the journey.” (Sahih Bukhari) 
it is the phrase of piety; it is the firm rope, and it is the phrase which Hazrat Ibrahim made lasting among his offspring: As the Holy Quran says: “And He made it a word lasting among his offspring, that they may turn back (to repent to Allah).” (43:28) .He has no Partner, and He cannot be compared with any other thing and if someone does this than it’s called the Shirk, which Allah (S.W.T) doesn’t like. Everything which is in this Universe is under His Control, and works according to His Command: “Such is Allâh, your Lord! Lâ ilâha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Creator of all things. So worship Him (Alone), and He is the Wakîl (Trustee, Disposer of affairs, Guardian, etc.) over all things.” (6: 102)
As the Holy Quran says: “(And this is in order) that the hearts of those who disbelieve in the Hereafter may incline to such (deceit), and that they may remain pleased with it, and that they may commit what they are committing (all kinds of sins and evil deeds, etc.)” (6:113) 
The second part of the Shahadah is the declaration that Muhammad (S.A.W) is the Messenger of Allah. He was the one who brought the Quran to us. Muslims are required to obey the Prophet (S.A.W) and follow his examples without any hesitation. As Allah says in the Holy Quran: “Say (O Muhammad S.A.W to mankind): “If you (really) love Allah then follow me (i.e. accept Islamic Monotheism, follow the Qur’an and the Sunnah), Allah will love you and forgive you of your sins. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (3:31)
Muslims are also required to honor and respect him, and as Allah commanded us to give him blessings and salutations. Whenever his name is mentioned we must say: ‘Sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam’. As Hazrat Bibi Aisha Siddique (R.A) said “His [Muhammad (S.A.W)] morals are the Quran.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari) Allah says in the Holy Quran: “Say (O Muhammad SAW): 

“Obey Allah and the Messenger (Muhammad SAW).” But if they turn away, then Allah does not like the disbelievers.” (3:32) So in order to become a Muslim we have to utter Shahadah by our tongue, by heart and by our actions that should confirm the meaning of Shahadah. Muslims believe that the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was the last prophet and messenger of God. By way of clarification it should be stated immediately that in Islam the role of a prophet or a messenger is far more important than in Christianity. In Islam, a prophet or a messenger expresses the will of God for a nation or all humankind. The message delivered by him is binding on those to whom it is sent and a rejection of him is a rejection of God. The work of a messenger, furthermore, change earlier religious laws and create a new religious community. The belief that the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) is the last prophet and messenger of God therefore means that after him there will not arise any person who will be authorized by God to express his will for others in a binding way and/or institute a new religious direction by a new expression of the religious truth and forming a religious community around that expression. Any person claiming to have such authority is suffering from self-deception and/or is lying; no matter how smart he may be or how many miraculous deeds he may perform. We need to examine the authenticity of the belief in the second sense. The Quran says: “Muhammad (S.A) is not the father of any male among you, but he is the messenger of God and the seal of the prophets; and God is aware of all things” (33:40).

 

Question: Why did The Holy Prophet marry several times? 
Answer: The Qur’an, in Surah Nisa, chapter 4 verse 3, states that a Muslim is allowed to marry a maximum of only four wives. Another verse in the Qur’an makes Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) an exception to this rule.
In Surah Ahzab chapter 33 verse 52: “It is not lawful for thee (to marry more) women after this, nor to change them for (other) wives, even though their beauty attract thee, except any thy right hand should possess (as hand maidens) and Allah doth watch over all things”.[Al-Qur’an 33:52]
This verse clearly gives Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) the permission to keep all his previous wives but prohibits him to marry any more women except those which his right hand possessed i.e. slave girls.
The Prophet (S.A.W) was allowed to keep all his previous wives because no one was allowed to marry the Prophet’s wives (R.A) after they were divorced or widowed as they were ummul-momineen (mother of the believers).
People falsely accuse the Prophet (S.A.W) of being hypersexual (Maaz-Allah), because he had eleven wives. If you read the life history of the Prophet (S.A.W), only two of his marriages one with Khadija (R.A), and the other, with Ayesha (R.A)were marriages in the normal course. All his other marriages were contracted as a necessity and were based on various considerations.
The first marriage of the Prophet (S.A.W) took place when he was 25 years of age and he married Khadija (R.A) who was twice widowed, and was 40 years old. If the Prophet (S.A.W) was hypersexual, why would he marry a woman who was 15 years older than him and already twice widowed?
Until his first wife, Khadija (R.A) was alive; he never took a second wife. Khadija (R.A) expired when the Prophet (S.A.W) was 50 years age and only after this, did he marry the others. If he married eleven wives for sexual reasons, he should have had multiple wives during his youth. Contrary to this, history tells us that all his marriages with his remaining ten wives took place when he was between the age of 53 and 59 years.
All his wives (R.A) were between the ages of 36 to 50 years, except for two wives (R.A). His reputation had spread far and wide, not only in Arabia, but also in the neighboring countries. Could he not have easily got younger and lovelier girls to marry? Most of his marriages were for political gain and for the spread of Islaam.
In Arabia, no one could carry on the work of reform and upliftment unless he belonged to, or was related to some specific and respectable tribe. Thus, in the interest of his mission, the Prophet (S.A.W) needed inter-tribal relationships. He wanted to weld the quarreling tribal and clannish factions into one Muslim ummah, as brethren in faith (Ikhwan fi’d-din).
For instance, his wife Juwayreeyah (R.A) belonged to the Banu Mustaliq clan, which was very powerful. The entire clan was a bitter enemy of Islam from the start, and they were finally suppressed by military action. When the Prophet (S.A.W) married Juwayreeyah (R.A), the Muslims released all their prisoners, saying that they could not keep the Prophet’s relatives in bondage. It was due to this marriage that the whole clan of Banu Mustaliq accepted Islam and became peaceful and obedient to the laws of the new Islaamic state.
Maymunah (R.A) also came from a very powerful and recalcitrant clan from Najd and was the sister of the wife of the chief of the clan in those days. It was this clan which had brutally murdered seventy members of an Islaamic missionary deputation. The Prophet’s (S.A.W) marriage with Maymunah (R.A) changed the whole atmosphere and Najd accepted Madinah’s authority under the leadership of the Prophet (S.A.W).
Umm Habibah (R.A) was the daughter of the Quraysh chief, Abu Sufyan. It was after the Prophet’s (S.A.W) marriage to Umm Habibah that Abu Sufyan never fought against the Prophet (S.A.W). This marriage was largely responsible for the conquest of Makkah. Further more, Umm Habibah was first married to a certain Ubaydullah and immigrated with him to Abyssinia, where Ubaydullah became a Christian and a drunkard. Excessive consumption of wine killed him since it was a double shock to her that her husband had become a Christian and later died, she was badly in need of solace.
Safiyyah (R.A) was the daughter of a very prominent Jewish chief, Huyyah ibn Aktab. In consideration of her family status, she could not be merged into an ordinary household. So the Prophet (S.A.W) himself married her. After this marriage, the Jews did not dare to revive their opposition to the Prophet (S.A.W) and his mission.
In the case of Hafsah (R.A), it was the Prophet’s (S.A.W) desire to bind in relationship with those of his great companions (sahabah) who were his advisers and who were trained for future leadership. He had married Abu Bakr’s (R.A) daughter, married two of his own daughters to Uthman (R.A) and one to ‘Ali (R.A). ‘Umar (R.A) could not be kept outside this wide circle of relationship. By marrying Umar’s daughter Hafsah (R.A), the Prophet (S.A.W) forged a strong bond of relationship within the Islamic movement thus strengthening the pillars of the ummah.
The Prophet (S.A.W) had married his first cousin, Zaynab (R.A), to his freed slave, Zayd ibn Haritha (R.A), whom he had adopted as his son. This marriage of Zaynab (R.A) with Zayd (R.A) was intended to break the family and social barriers, but the marriage did not prove to be successful and ended in divorce. When the Prophet (S.A.W) (S.A.W) that Zaynab (R.A) was left alone, he felt his responsibility in the matter. He also had to break another convention, according to which an adopted son became a real son. This difficult problem was solved by the Prophet’s (S.A.W) marriage to Zaynab (R.A) (as mentioned in the Quran, in Surah Ahzab, chapter no 33 verse 37) to annul that pre-Islamic conception and promulgate an Islamic law instead.
Another lady Zaynab (R.A), Umm al Masakin (mother of the poor and helpless), daughter of Khuzayma ibn Al-Haith, belonged to the Hawazin clan. Her husband was killed in the battle of Uhad. To rescue her from widowhood, the Prophet (S.A.W) took her as his wife.
After the revelation of the verse in Surah Ahzab, chapter 33 vers 52, the Prophet (S.A.W) only married Mary the Copt who was a slave girl sent as a present by the Christian Muqauqas of Egypt. Since the Christian Chieftain of Egypt sent Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) a slave girl as a present, he could not refuse this gift as a refusal would have disturbed the political alliance. He could not keep her as a slave girl, since Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) preached that slaves should be freed. The only option left with him was to marry her, since the Qur’an gave him the permission to do so. Later on she became the mother of Ibrahim (R.A) who died in his infancy.


Solved Past Paper Questions – O Level Guides and Resources

More Story on Source:

* Source→ *

0

Publication author

offline 3 weeks

SFi Official

0
Comments: 0Publics: 1372Registration: 11-03-2021