Internet History Sourcebooks Project
Internet Islamic History Sourcebook
Editor: Paul Halsall
This page is a subset of texts derived from the three major online Sourcebooks listed below, along with added texts and web site indicators. For more contextual information, for instance about Western imperialism, or the history of a given period, check out these web sites.
For help in research, homework, and so forth see
In addition to direct links to documents, links are made to a number of other web resources. 2ND Link to a secondary article, review or discussion on a given topic. MEGA Link to one of the megasites which track web resources. WEB Link to a website focused on a specific issue.. These are not links to every site on a given topic, but to sites of serious educational value.
Religious and Social Context of 7th Century Arabia
- Ibn Ishaq (d. c. 773 CE): Selections from the Life of Muhammad
- The Qu’ran: Al-Fatiha (The Opening), text with RealAudio chanting, [At Islam.org]
The entire Qu’ran is available in audio at this site.
- The Qu’ran: Surahs 1 and 47
See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Islam (Concept)
- Muhammad: Last Sermon
- 2ND Philip K. Hitti: Muhammad, The Prophet of Allah [At Oneworld]
- 2ND Montgomery Watt: Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961) Last Chapter
- 2ND Maxime Rodinson: Muhammad (New York: Pantheon Books. 1980), pp. 38. ff, Chapter 3
- 2N Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri: AR-RaheeQ Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar) Memoirs of the Noble Prophet [At Witness Pioneer]
It is unclear what exactly this document is.
- Sunan Abu-Dawud, Partial translation, translator: Prof. Ahmad Hasan [At USC-MSA]
“Sunan Abu-Dawud is a collection of sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) (also known as the sunnah). The reports of the Prophet’s sayings and deeds are called ahadith. Abu-Dawud lived a couple of centuries after the Prophet’s deat and worked extremely hard to collect his ahadith.”
- Malik (93-179 AH): Muwatta, Translated by `A’isha `Abdarahman at-Tarjumana and Ya`qub Johnson. [At USC-MSA]
“Malik’s Muwatta (“the well-trodden path”) is a collection of two items: the sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) (also known as the sunnah). The reports of the Prophet’s sayings and deeds are called ahadith.”
- WEB Companions of The Prophet [At Witness Pioneer]
A sort of Muslim hagiography. Unfortunately, with no sources cited.
HadithIslam Faith and Theology
- WEB Barbara R. von Schlegell: Introduction to Islamic Religion [Religious Studies 143/Asian & Middle Eastern Studies 136] [At UPenn]
- Arthur Jeffry: A Reader on Islam: Passages from Standard Arabic Writings Illustrative of the Beliefs and Practices of Muslims [At UPenn]
- 2ND Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad: An Elementary Study of Islam [At Alislam.org]
- Qur’an Texts
- Qu’ran, Part I, and Part II, translated by E.H. Palmer, Full text [At Sacred Texts]
- The Holy Qur’an, trans. M.H. Shakir, Full text [At CMU]
- The Qu’ran, trans. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali, [At The Noble Qu’ran]. This is an English translation endorsed by the Saudi government. Includes Arabic commentary by Ibn Katheer, Tabari, and Qurtubi. See also Catholic Encyclopedia: KORAN
- The Qu’ran, translated Maulvi Sher Ali, Full Text, [At Al Islam]
- The Qu’ran in Arabic script with audio recitation, Full Text, [At IslamiCity]
- The Quran: Three Versions Side By Side [At USC-MSA]
Contains Yusuf Ali, Pickthall and Shakir’s versions side by side for each sura.
- Religious Life
The Sunni Tradition
The Shi’ite Tradition
Islam as a Modern Faith
Women in Islam
- The Qur’an: The Women [At Internet Archive, from CCNY]
From Surah’s 2 and 4.
- A Visit to the Wife of Suleiman the Magnificent (Translated from a Genoese Letter), c. 1550
- Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689-1762): Dining With The Sultana, 1718
- Demetra Vaka: Aïshé Hanoum, c. 1888
Life of a Turkish woman.
- WEB Women in Islam [At Answering Islam]
The website is a site devoted to arguments with Muslims. This web page contains links to explanations, defences, and attacks on the subject of women in Islam.
- 2ND Sherif Abdel Azeem: Women In Islam Versus Women In The
Judaeo-Christian Tradition [At TWF]
Widely reproduced “defence” of women’s role in Islam.
- 2ND M. Rafiqul-Haqq and P. Newton: The Place of Women in Pure Islam [Ar Venus Project]
Decidely critical of Muslim practice, but quotes a large number of sources.
- 2ND Anne Hardwick: From Muhammad to Present: Islamic Law and Women [At Internet Archive, from Rhodes]
- 2ND Barbara Crossette: “A Manual on Rights of Women Under Islam,” New York Times, December 29, 1996 [At Internet Archive, from Mt Holyoke]
- 2ND Ghada Barsoum: Polemics on the Veil in Egypt
Student paper on modern Egyptian debates. [At Internet Archive]
- 2ND Douglas Jehl: “Egyptian Court Voids Ban on Cutting of Girls’ Genitals,” New York Times, June 26, 1997 [At NY Times]
- 2ND John F. Burns: “Journal: Islamic Police Create a Minefield for Women,” New York Times, August 29, 1997 [At Internet Archive, from Mt Holyoke]
- 2ND Marelise Simons: “Cry of Muslim Women for Equal Rights Is Rising,” New York Times, March 9, 1998 [At Internet Archive, from Mt Holyoke]
- Female Circumcision/Female Genital Mutilation
- 2ND W.N. Arafat: “New Light on the Story of the Banu Qurayza and the Jews of Medina”, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, (1976), 100-107. [At haqq.com]
- 2ND The Battle of Badr, 624 CE [At Internet Archive, from islaam.com]
- Al-Baladhuri: The Battle of The Yarmuk (636 CE) and After
The Byzantines lost control of Syria at Yarmuk.
- Accounts of the Arab Conquest of Egypt, 642 CE
The Coptic account from The History of The Patriarchs of Alexandria and an Arab account – Al-Baladhuri: The Conquest of Alexandria
- Ibn Abd-el-Hakem: The Islamic Conquest of Spain
- Al Maggari: Tarik’s Address to His Soldiers, 711 CE, from The Breath of Perfumes
- Anonymous Arab Chronicler: The Battle of Poitiers, 732 CE
- Arabs, Franks, and the Battle of Tours: Three Accounts 732 CE
- 2ND Fred Donner: The Early Islamic Conquests, (Princeton: Princeton Univ Press, 1981), pp.251 ff – Chapter VI. “Conclusions: 1. Tribe and State in Arabia: Second Essay”
- 2ND Judith Herrin: The Formation of Christendom. “Byzantium Confronted by Islam”, (Princeton: Princeton Univ, Press. 1987), 183-213
- 2ND The War System in Islam [At Submission.org]
Islamic Africa [Sub-Sahara]
- Abû Ûthmân al-Jâhiz: The Essays, excerpts, c. 860 CE
On the Zanj (Black Africans). Arab Muslim opinions.
- African States
- African Islamic Culture
- The Slave Trade
- An Arab Ambassador in Constantinople, (late 10th Century)
- Al-Tanûkhî: Ruminations and Reminiscences, c. 980 CE
“The Table Talk of a Mesopotamian Judge”
- Yakut: Baghdad under the Abbasids, c. 1000 CE
- Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masu’di (Masoudi) (ca. 895?-957 CE): The Book of Golden Meadows, c. 940 CE
Masu’di – “the Arab Suetonius” or “the Arab Herodotus” – specialized in a history which went beyond chronology to look at themes and individual anecdotes. This is an extensive selection on various caliphs.
- Ibn-Miskawaih: The Experiences of the Nations, c. 980 CE
Powerplays in the Abbasid court.
- Al Biruni (973-1048 CE): The Existing Monuments or Chronology, c. 1030 CE
One of the earlist Arabic historians.
- 2ND Gaston Wiet: Baghdad: Metropolis of the Abbasid Caliphate, (Norman OK: Univ of Oklahoma Press, 19?? ) Chap. 5
- 2ND J. Schact: “Law and Justice”, in Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Islam, vol. II, pt. VIII/chap. 4, pp. 539 ff.
- Sunan Abu-Dawud, Book 28: Medicine (Kitab Al-Tibb) [At USC-MSA]
- Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (973-1037 CE): On Medicine, c. 1020 CE
- Adelard of Bath: Natural Questions, c. 1137
Impact of Muslim science in the West.
- 2ND Seyyed Hossain Nasr: Science and Civilization in Islam, (New York : New American Library. 1968). “Introduction”.
- WEB History of Islamic Medicine
- Famous Muslim Scientist Lists
The lists below seem to be part of a certain genre of list creation, usually to make the claim (which is true) that Islam had a glorious role in the history of science. Non of them seem to address what happened after c. 1500 (the Western Intrusion was not until c. 1800, so it will not do as an “excuse”.)
- The Poets of Arabia, Selections
- Al Hariri of Basrah (446-516 A.H./1054-1122 CE): Maqamat, (The Assemblies), c. 1100 CE, 12 of the 50 “assemblies”. Maqamat (singular Maqamah) were a popular sort of Arabic entertainment literature (adab). This is perhaps the most popular example.
- The Women and Her Suitors story from the Thousand and One Nights [caution: very rude!]
- The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor story from the Thousand and One Nights [At Sacred Texts]
- The Arabian Nights Entertainments, translated by Andrew Lang
- The Arabian Nights, translated Sir. Richard Francis Burton. Full Text – Sacred Texts]
- Ibn Fadlan. Risala 921 CE [At VikingAnswerLady]
Ibn Fadlan -an Arab chronicler. In 921 C.E., the Caliph sent Ibn Fadlan with an embassy to the King of the Bulgars of the Middle Volga. Ibn Fadlan wrote an account of his journeys with the embassy, called a Risala. This Risala is of great value as a history, although it is clear in some places that inaccuracies and Ibn Fadlan’s own prejudices have slanted the account to some extent.
- Nasir-i-Khusraw (1046-1052): Book of Travels (Safarnama) [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]
- The Nizámu’l Mulk (?-1092 CE) : On the Courtiers and Familars of Kings
- Ibn Battuta (1307-1377 CE): Travels, selections
- Ibn Battuta (1307-1377 CE): Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354
- 2ND Arthur Goldschmidt: A Concise History of the Middle East. Chap. 8. “Islamic Civilization”
- 2ND Oleg Grabar: Ceremonial and Art at the Umayyad Court. PhD Dissertation, Princeton Univ 1955. Chap. I. The Umayyad Royal Idea and its Expression under Mu’awiyah I. pp 18 ff
- 2ND Oleg Grabar: The Formation of Islamic Art, (New Haven: Yale Univ Press, 19??), pp. 43- 71,.Chap. 3 “The Symbolic Appropriation of the Land” chapter 3
- 2ND S. M. Ghazanfar: The Islamic World and the Western Renaissance [At Cyberistan].
Useful enough, but written with a chip on his shoulder by an economist.
Gender and Sexuality in Classical Islam
- The Qur’an on Homosexuality.
- Edward Carpenter (1884-1929): Iolaus: An Anthology of Friendship [chapter on Arabia and Persia], with extracts from Rumi, Hafiz and Saadi.
- The Tale of Nur Al-Din Ali and his Son Badr Al-Din Hasan,
from The Arabian Nights, translated Sir. Richard Francis Burton.
- Abu Nawas (c.756-810 CE): Poetry
- The Nizámu’l Mulk (?-1092 CE) : On the Courtiers and Familars of Kings
- Sa’di (1184-1292 CE): Gulistan, 13th Century CE, Full text of Persian prose/poetry text with significant homoerotic content.
- Rumi: Poetry
- Sa’di (1184-1292 CE): The Gulistan, c. 1256 CE. another translation.
- Sheikh Nefzaoui: The Perfumed Garden, 16th Cent. CE/c. A.H 925, translated by Sir Richard Burton , in chapter files, full text, [At Bibliomania]
A guide to sex by a Tunisian writer of the 16th century. Does not discuss male homosexuality, but does discuss Lesbianism (in chap. 20).
- Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq (1522 – 1592 CE): Lesbian Love in A Turkish Bath, 1560 [At Internet Archive, from Letters Magazine]
- 2ND Richard Burton: Terminal Essay, from his edition of the Arabian Nights.
Burton’ compilation of data on variety of societies was meant to explain some of the stories in The Nights. In doing so, he provided first overview of Islamic homosexuality.
- 2ND Islam and Homosexuality [At Geocities]
An extremely homophobic article which claims Islam never tolerated homosexuality.
Successor States: Ummayyad Spain
- 2ND David J. Wasserstein: The Caliphate in the West, (Oxford: ClarendonPress, 1993), chap. 1. “The Caliphal Institution in al-Andalus until 422/1031”
In English, with Spanish and French versions.
Successor States: Fatamid Egypt
Successor States: Mameluke Egypt
Successor States: North Africa/Maghreb
The Mongol Invasions
- Ibn al-Athir: On The Tatars, 1220-1221CE
The effects of the Mongols in Persia.
- Bar Sauma (c. 1278-1313): The Monk of Kublai Khan, Emperor of China; or The History of the Life and Travels of Rabban Sawma, Envoy and Plenipotentiary of the Mongol Khans to the Kings of Europe and Markos who as Yahbh-Allaha III Became Patriarch of the Nestorian Church. Translated by E.A. Wallis Budge, London: The Religious Track Society, 1928. [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]
- Firdausi: The Epic of Kings, c. 1000 CE [At MIT]
HTML version in short sections.
- Firdausi: The Epic of Kings, c. 1000 CE [At Adelaide]
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE): The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (first edition), trans. by Edward FitzGerald (page images [At Virginia]
- Omar Khayyam: The Rubiayat, c. 1120 CE, or another version, both editions translated by Edward Fitzgerald.
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE): The Rubaiyat, c. 1120
This is not the famous translation by Edward Fitgerald, but a more complete version by E. H. Whinfield.
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE): In Praise of Wine, c. 1100
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE): The Vanity of Regret, c. 1100
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE): The Cup, c. 1110
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE): Profession of Faith, c. 1120
- Omar Khayyam (d. 1123 CE): The Wisdom of the Supreme, c. 1120
- Nizami (1140-1203 CE): Khosru & Shireen, c. 1190 CE
- Sa’di (1184-1292 CE): Gulistan, 1258 CE, Full text, in short sections. [At MIT]
- Sa’di (1184-1292 CE): Gulistan, 1258 CE, Full text of Persian prose/poetry text with significant homoerotic content
- Sa’di (1184-1292): The Gulistan, c. 1256 CE. Translation by James Ross (1890)
- Sa’di (1184-1292 CE): The Bustan
- Jalal ad-Din Rumi (1207-1273 CE): The Masnavi, excerpts, c. 1250 CE
- Jalal ad-Din Rumi (1207-1273 CE): The Fairest Land, c. 1250 CE
- Jalal ad-Din Rumi (1207-1273 CE): Poems from the Divan-I Shams-I Tabriz, c. 1270 CE
- Hafiz (1325-1389 CE): Verses in Praise of God, c. 1370 CE
- Jami (1414-1492 CE): Joseph and Zuleika, c. 1470 CE
- WEB Isfahan Page
- WEB The Ottomans [At WSU]
A multi-media site by Richard Hooker.
- Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq (1522 – 1592): The Turkish Letters, excerpts, 1555-1562 [At this Site]
- Sidi Ali Reis (16th Century CE): Mirat ul Memalik (The Mirror of Countries), 1557 CE
A Turkish traveler’s account of the world of India and the Middle East.
- Science and Technology
- WEB The Mughals [At WSU]
A multi-media site by Richard Hooker.
- See Internet Medieval Sourcebook: Selected Sources for many Western sources on the Crusades.
- Usmah Ibn Munqidh (1095-1188): Autobiography: Excerpts on the Franks, c.1175 CE.
- Usmah Ibn Munqidh (1095-1188): On Muslim and Christian Piety, 12th Century. [At Internet Archive, from CCNY]
- Usmah Ibn Munqidh (1095-1188): On European Piracy, 12th Century. [At Internet Archive, from CCNY]
- Pope Innocent III: License to Venice to Trade With The Saracens, 1198
- 2ND Philip K. Hitti : The Assasins [At Drug Library]
- The Tale of Two Hashish-Easters (Traditional), and another Hasish Tale, from Arabian Nights [At Drug Library]
- Al-Makrisi: Arab Account of the Crusade of St. Louis
- A Christian-Muslim Debate [12th Century]
- 2ND Hadia Dajani-Shakeel: “Some Medieval Accounts of Salah al-Din’s Recovery of Jerusalem (Al-Quds)” in Hisham Nashabe (ed) Studia Palaestina: Studies in honour of Constantine K. Zurayk, Institute for Palestine Studies, Beirut 1988.
- Benjamin of Tudela (1160-1173): The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela Critical Text, Translation and Commentary by Marcus Nathan Adler. [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]
- Anonymous: Guide-book to Palestine. (c. 1350). Translated by. J. H. Barnard. London: Palestine Pilgrims Text Society, 1894. [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]
- John Poloner (1422): Description of the Holy Land (c. 1421), based on the translation of Aubrey Stewart from the Tobler text. London, 1894. [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]
- Felix Fabri (1480 & 1483-84): The Book of the Wanderings of Felix Fabri (Circa 1480-1483 A.D.) trans. Aubrey Stewart. 2 vols. London: Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, 1896 [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]
- Pietro Casola (1494): Canon Pietro Casola’s Pilgrimage to Jerusalem in the Year 1494. trans. Mary Margaret Newett. Manchester: The University Press, 1907. [At Traveling to Jerusalem/U Sth Colorado]
European 19th Century Imperialism
The Ottoman Empire in the Face of Western Power
- Treaty of Peace between the United States and Morocco Meknes, 16 September 1836 [At Historical Text Archive]
- Letter threatening military reprisals by French on Moroccan pirates (1855) (French Text) [At Historical Text Archive]
- Convention between Morocco and Spain extending the Limits of Melilla etc., signed at Tetuan, 24 August 1859 [At Historical Text Archive]
- Convention between Great Britain and Morocco relative to a Loan to be raised in London by Morocco, signed at Tangier, 24 October 1861 [At Historical Text Archive]
- Commercial Treaty between Morocco and Spain 1861 [At Historical Text Archive]
- Proclamation by the French consulate-general, Tangier 1862 [At Historical Text Archive]
- Convention as to Cape Spartel Light-house between the United States, Austria, Belgium, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden and Norway and Morocco, 1867 [At Historical Text Archive]
- Edmondo de Amicis: One Day in Morocco, c. 1870 [At this Site]
A traveler’s account.
- British Order in Council for the regulation of British Consular Jurisdiction in Morocco. Osborne, February 4, 1875. [At Historical Text Archive]
- Convention as to protection in Morocco between the United States, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden and Norway and Morocco, 1880. [At Historical Text Archive]
- Declaration between the United Kingdom and France respecting Egypt and Morocco, together with the secret articles signed at the same time. Signed at London, April 8, 1904 [At Historical Text Archive]
- Declaration between the governments of France and Spain, respecting the integrity of Morocco Signed at Paris, October 3, 1904. [At Historical Text Archive]<
- Algeciras Conference, 1906 (French text) [At Historical Text Archive]
- Agreement between Germany and France Relative to Morocco. February 9, 1909. [At Historical Text Archive]
- Exchange of notes between France and Morocco, August 14-December 25, 1909. [At Historical Text Archive]
World War I
British and French Diplomacy
Islam and Democracy
- 2ND Bernard Lewis, “Islam and Liberal Democracy: A Historical Interview,” Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 52-63 [At Mt Holyoke]
- 2ND Robin Wright “Islam and Liberal Democracy: Two Visions Of Reformation,” Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 64-75 [At Mt Holyoke]
- 2ND Abdou Filali-Ansary, “Islam and Liberal Democracy: The Challenge Of Secularization,” Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 76-80 [At Mt Holyoke]
- 2ND Mohamed Elhachmi Hamdi, “Islam and Liberal Democracy: The Limits Of The Western Model,” Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 81-85 [At Mt Holyoke]
- 2ND Laith Kubba, “Islam and Liberal Democracy: Recognizing Pluralism,” Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 86-89 [At Mt Holyoke]
- 2ND National Institute for Research Advancement’s (NIRA – Japan), “Political Islam: Pluralism Denied,” By: Ryoji Tateyama [At NIRA]
- Islamic World: Country Studies
Prepared for Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. These are full descriptions of the countries concerned, in terms of history, geography, economy, etc. There are also useful bibliographies. [At LOC]
- Islamic World: Modern Constitutions [if not listed below]
- Western Views of the Region
- Benjamin R. Barber: Jihad Vs. McWorld, The Atlantic Monthly, March 1992 [At The Atlantic, subscription required][Added 7/23/98]
- The Islamic Salvation Front National Provisional Executive Bureau:
Communique No. 42, Algiers, November 14 1993 [At Historical Text Archive]
- 2ND William Lewis, “Algeria at the Brink,” Strategic Forum, National Defense University, Number 32, June, 1995 [At NDU]
- Ayatollah Khomeini: The Uprising of Khurdad 15, 1979 [At this Site]
- V.S. Naipaul: Among the Believers, The Atlantic Monthly, July 1981, [At The Atlantic, subscription required][Added 7/23/98]
Shia Islam in Revolutionary Iran.
- Iran Constitution, 1992 [At ICL]
Includes a history of the 1979 revolution, and specific comments on the position of women.
- Robert Kaplan: Sons of Devils, The Atlantic Monthly, November 1987 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
On Kurdish identity.
- Laurie Mylroie: After Saddam Hussein, The Atlantic Monthly, December 1992 [At The Atlantic, subscription required]
On the Kurds in the Middle East.
- Syria Constitution, 1973 [At ICL]
The Palestine/Israel Conflict
World War I and its Effects
The Politics and Culture of the Interwar Years
Establishment of Israel
- UN Security Council Resolution 425, March 19, 1978 [At Yale]
- Camp David Accords, September 17, 1978 [At Yale]
- Peace Treaty Between Israel and Egypt, March 26, 1979 [At Yale]
- Israel’s Peace Initiative, May 14, 1989 [At Jewish Virtual Library]
- Invitation to Madrid Peace Conference, October 30, 1991 [At Jewish Virtual Library]
- Israel-PLO Recognition, September 9-10, 1993 [At Jewish Virtual Library]
- Israel-Palestinian Declaration of Principles, September 13, 1993 [At Jewish Virtual Library]
- Israel-Jordan Common Agenda, September 14, 1993 [At Yale]
- Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area, May 4, 1994 – Preamble and Articles [At Jewish Virtual Library]
- The Washington Declaration (Israel-Jordan-US), July 25, 1994 [At Jewish Virtual Library]
- Agreement on the Preparatory Transfer of Powers and Responsibilities (Israel-PLO) August 29, 1994 [At Yale]
- Treaty of Peace between Israel and Jordan, October 26, 1994 [At Yale]
- Interim Agreement between Israel and the Palestinians, September 28, 1995 [At Jewish Virtual Library]
- Summit of Peacemakers – Final Statement (Sharm el-Sheikh, March 13, 1996) [At MFA]
- Israel-Lebanon Ceasefire Understanding, April 26, 1996 [At Jewish Virtual Library]
Palestinian Organizations and Politics
Origins, Expansion and Core Areas
- Satellite Map of the Middle East (source unknown) [At Medieval Sourcebook]
- The Middle East in the Sixth Century, from R. Roolvink et al., Historical Atlas of the Muslim Peoples (Amsterdam, 1957) [At UPenn]
- Muslim Expansion in the Time of Muhammad from R. Roolvink et al., Historical Atlas of the Muslim Peoples (Amsterdam, 1957) [At UPenn]
- Map of Muslim Expansion until A.D. 661, from W.C. Brice. An Historical Atlas of Islam (Leiden, 1981) [At UPenn]
- The Growth of Muslim Power: First 25 Years (BW) [At Medieval Sourcebook] Source: H.G. Wells, A Short History of the World, (London: 1922)
- Muslim Expansion in the West in the Umayyad Period (661-750)
- The Umayyad Empire c.A.D.750, from W.C. Brice. An Historical Atlas of Islam (Leiden, 1981) [At UPenn]
- The Muslim Empire: 750 CE (BW) Source: H.G. Wells, A Short History of the World, (London: 1922) [At Medieval Sourcebook]
- The Abbasid Caliphate (786-809) from R. Roolvink et al., Historical Atlas of the Muslim Peoples (Amsterdam, 1957) [At UPenn]
- The Mediterranean in the Ninth Century from R. Roolvink et al., Historical Atlas of the Muslim Peoples (Amsterdam, 1957) [At UPenn]
- The Late Abbasid Caliphate c.A.D.900, from W.C. Brice. An Historical Atlas of Islam [At UPenn]
- The Muslim World c.A.D. 1300, from W.C. Brice. An Historical Atlas of Islam (Leiden, 1981) [At UPenn]
- The Muslim World c.A.D. 1500, from W.C. Brice. An Historical Atlas of Islam (Leiden, 1981) [At UPenn]
- The Middle East in the Nineteenth Century, from W.C. Brice. An Historical Atlas of Islam (Leiden, 1981) [At UPenn]
- Map of Saudi Arabia [At Mt Holyoke]
- The First Crusade, 1099 (Col) A clickable map of all of Europe in 1099 Source: Adaptation of “Europe at the time of the First Crusade”, in Muir’s Historical Atlas: Medieval and Modern, (London: 1911) [At Medieval Sourcebook]
- The Crusader States in the Early 12th Century (BW) Source: George Richard Potter, The Autobiography of Ousama, (New York: 1929 [copyright seems to be expired]) [At Medieval Sourcebook]
- Crusader States, (Col) Adapted from Muir’s Historical Atlas: Medieval and Modern, (London: 1911) [At Medieval Sourcebook]
- Jerusalem, (Col) Adapted from Muir’s Historical Atlas: Medieval and Modern, (London: 1911) [At Medieval Sourcebook]
- Second and Third Crusades, (Col) Adapted from Muir’s Historical Atlas: Medieval and Modern, (London: 1911) [At Medieval Sourcebook]
- The Empire of Sultan Salah Al-Din (1171-1193) and the Crusaders’ Principalities in Syria and Palestine [At UPenn]
- Fourth Crusade, (Col) Adapted from Muir’s Historical Atlas: Medieval and Modern, (London: 1911) [At Medieval Sourcebook]
Turks: Seljuqs and Ottomans
- Map of Almoravid, Saldjuk, and Ghaznavid Expansion c.A.D. 1100, from W.C. Brice. An Historical Atlas of Islam (Leiden, 1981) [At UPenn]
- Growth of the Ottoman Empire From the Early 14th Century Till 1512 [At UPenn]
- The Ottoman Sultanate in the 16th and 17th Centuries [At UPenn]
- The Ottoman Empire: 1556 (BW) Source: H.G. Wells, A Short History of the World, (London: 1922) [At Medieval Sourcebook]
- Europe, 1360, (Col) Adapted from Muir’s Historical Atlas: Medieval and Modern, (London: 1911) [At Medieval Sourcebook]
- Europe, 1519, (Col) Adapted from Muir’s Historical Atlas: Medieval and Modern, (London: 1911) [At Medieval Sourcebook]
India and Far East
- Guides to the Web
- Academic Pages
- General Interest Sites
- Muslim Sites
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- Isra and Mi'raj2021.09.17What do Hamas and PIJ have in their rocket arsenals?
- Isra and Mi'raj2021.09.16Nietzsche, Context, & the Islamic Assumption
- Isra and Mi'raj2021.09.14Dil Ko Karar Aaya New Version New Best Romantic Love Story Dua Bhi Lage Na Mujhe Yaseer D Music has cost
- Isra and Mi'raj2021.09.14www.abebooks.com/book-search/author/abdul-hafeez-mohammed | Islam 786 Forum