DebateReligion – The Quran has neither an inserted verse nor any verse has been redacted and I can prove it to you using checksums.
The Quran has hundreds of algebraic equations and numerical patterns in it (the author very clearly had a love for math, numbers and patterns) but today I’m only going to look at one. Note this is NOT an argument to prove the Quran is the word of God and it is NOT an argument to prove that Islam is true or divine. This argument is to prove that a verse has not been inserted nor redacted. The author of the Quran is irrelevant: it could be God, Mohammed or some anonymous author and since most of the folks here are not Muslim, feel free to go ahead and assume the Quran was not written by God, so that we can get that out of the way for the sake of debate.
The arrangement of the Quran has puzzled Quran scholars for centuries. For Muslims, the most accepted view is that it was ordered following instruction given by Allah (swt). For orientalists, the general conclusion is that the Quran is roughly ordered from longest chapters to shortest chapters (not perfect as there are several exceptions). It turns out that the number of verses that occur within each chapter has more significance than this.
I’m sure the computer science majors and the technically-inclined are aware of what checksums are, but for those of us who don’t, checksum functions are used to verify data integrity. Your computers uses checksum functions all the time: to ensure the data transferred over the internet isn’t corrupted, to make sure the data on your hard drive hasn’t corrupted (filesystem), to deduplicate data, etc. The idea is that you give the checksum function a large input and it produces a small output. If the function’s output is an expected output, then there’s a very high chance the data integrity has not been compromised.
If you look at the chapter numbers in the Quran (1 to 114), obviously the 1,3,5,7,… chapters are odd-numbered and the 2,4,6,8,… chapters are even-numbered – this is nothing special. If you look at the number of verses in each chapter, there is no predictable pattern for odd and even: 7=odd, 286=even, 200=even, 176=even, 120=even, 165=odd, 206=even, 75=odd, 129=odd, 109=odd, … For each chapter, take the total of the chapter number with the verses within the chapter. There will be an even split among the totals: 57 totals will even and 57 totals will be odd. If you take the sum of the 57 even totals, you will get the sum of all the verse numbers or in other words, the total number of verses in the Quran (6236). If you take the sum of the 57 odd totals, you will get the sum of all the chapter numbers (6555).
Now, see what happens when you move one chapter from the even total group to the odd total group or vice-versa: the entire pattern collapses. So for example, you could end up with 58 even totals and 56 odd totals. Now thanks to this movement of the chapter from one group to another, the summation of both the odd totals and the even totals will no longer be the the total number of verses in the Quran nor the sum of all the chapter numbers. What would move a chapter from one total group to another? Taking out a verse or inserting a verse. Therefore, if a verse was inserted into the Quran or a verse was redacted from the Quran, then this pattern wouldn’t have survived. But this pattern has survived which means the Quran has neither an inserted verse nor has any verse been redacted.
To test the uniqueness of this result, this pattern was checked to see if it occurs in the Torah (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy) and the gospels (Mark, Matthew, Luke, John) and this pattern was not found.
Here is a google docs excel sheet of the pattern: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/12hXpBl2Tpzrmzkh7IxZ88PyOv5DEkUS_fne1F2jJv4U/edit?usp=sharing
Here a more formal formulation of the pattern: http://i.imgur.com/37D5MJN.png