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Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 3 people killed stampede

    Jan 19, Mohammed (d.632), “The Prophet”, founder of Islam and speaker in the “Koran,” was born into the Quraysh tribe in Makkah. He was orphaned at an early age and found work in a trade caravan. He married a wealthy widow and this gave him the freedom to visit Mount Hira each year to think. His birthday is observed on the 12th day of Rabi ul’Awwal, the 3rd month of the lunar calendar, in a festival known as Mawlid-al-Nabi. The Koran was probably not fixed for the 1st two centuries after the emergence of Islam.    (ATC, p.59)(SFC, 7/6/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A16)(Econ, 4/28/07, p.97)610        Apr 6, Lailat-ul Qadar: The night that the Koran descended to Earth. Muhammad is believed by his followers to have had a vision of Gabriel. The angel told him to recite in the name of God. Other visions are supposed to have Gabriel lead Muhammad to heaven to meet God, and to Jerusalem to meet Abraham, Moses and Jesus. These visions convinced Mohammad that he was a messenger of God.    (ATC, p.59)(MC, 4/6/02)620        Aug 22, This day corresponds to the 27th day of Rajab, 1427, in the Islamic calendar. It commemorates to the night flight of Muhammad on the winged horse Buraq to the farthest mosque, usually identified with Jerusalem, and then to heaven and back.    (WSJ, 8/8/06, p.A10)(www.atheists.org/Islam/mohammedanism.html)620        Mohammad gained about a hundred converts including some wealthy Meccan families. This made other Meccans hostile. Mohammad in this year dreamed of being transported from Mecca to the Rock of Mariah in Jerusalem, from which he ascended into heaven and received instructions from God for himself and his followers.    (ATC, p.59)(ON, 7/03, p.6)622        Jul 16, Islamic Era began. Mahomet began his flight from Mecca to Medina (Hegira).    (MC, 7/16/02)622        Sep 20, Prophet Mohammed Abu Bakr arrived in Jathrib (Medina).    (MC, 9/20/01)622AD        Sep 24, In the Hegira Muhammed left Mecca for Medina (aka Yathrib) with 75 followers. This event marked the beginning of the Islamic lunar calendar. The new faith was called “Islam,” which means submission to Allah. Believers in Islam are called Muslims– “Those who submit to Allah’s will.” In Medina Mohammad tried to unite the Jews and Arabs and initially faced Jerusalem to pray. The Jewish leaders did not accept Mohammad as a prophet and so Mohammad expelled from the city the Jews who opposed him. From then on he commanded the Muslims to face the Kaaba in Mecca when praying.    (V.D.-H.K.p.19)(ATC, p.60)622        The Constitution of Medina was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad about this time. It constituted a formal agreement between Muhammad and all of the significant tribes and families of Yathrib (later known as Medina), including Muslims, Jews, and pagans.    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Medina)624        Muslims engaged non-believers for the 1st time at the Battle of Badr.    (www.islaam.com/Article.aspx?id=128)624-628    Several Jewish clans in the Arabian peninsula joined forces with an Arab tribe, the Quraysh, to make war on a renegade Qurayshi named Mohammad, who claimed he was a prophet of God.    (Econ, 8/14/10, p.68)630AD        Mohammad raised an army of 10,000 and took over Mecca (Makkah). He immediately set out to destroy all the idols at Kaaba. The black stone remained embedded in the corner. The area around became the first mosque, or Muslim house of worship. Mohammad returned from Madinah and began the Islamic conquest of Arabia.    (ATC, p.60)(WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A16)632        Jun 8,    Mohammed, the founder of Islam and unifier of Arabia, died. His companions compiled his words and deeds in a work called the Sunna. Here are contained the rules for Islam. The most basic are The Five Pillars of Islam. These are: 1) profession of faith 2) daily prayer 3) giving alms 4) ritual fast during Ramadan 5) Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Sunna also calls for “jihad.” The term means struggle, i.e. to do one’s best to resist temptation and overcome evil.        Four contenders stood out to succeed Mohammad. They were Abu Bakr, his trusted father-in-law. Umar and Uthman, long-time friends and advisers, and Ali, a cousin and blood relative. Ali was Mohammad’s son-in-law and the father of Mohammad’s grandsons. Abu Bakr was chosen as caliph i.e. successor.    (ATC, p.60,63)(HN, 6/8/98)(SFC, 12/15/98, p.A7)(AP, 6/8/03)           Iqra, which means read in Arabic, was reportedly the first word that the archangel Gabriel spoke to Mohammed.    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.C5)        In 2001 Minou Reeves, Iranian-born scholar, authored “Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making ”    (WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A15)632-661    The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam’s history, was founded after Muhammad’s death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rashidun_Caliphate)634        Aug 22, Abu Bekr Abd Allah (61), [al-Siddik], successor of Mohammed, died. He was a friend, an Arabic merchant, Mohammed’s father-in-law and the first Caliph. Before his death he appointed Mohammed’s adviser Omar (Umar) as his successor.    (ATC, p.66)(PC, 1992, p.61)644        Nov 3, Umar of Arabia, the 2nd Caliph of Islam, was stabbed by Abu Lulu while leading the morning prayers at Medina. He died 4 days later on Nov 7. On his deathbed Umar named a council to choose the next caliph. The council appointed Uthman. Uthman continued to expand the Muslim empire.    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umar)656        In Saudi Arabia Uthman (Othman), the 3rd caliph, was murdered. Under his rule a full, standard text of the Quran was compiled. He had appointed members of his own family as regional governors and caused bitter jealousy among other families. This caused an angry mob of 500 to murder him. This gave Ali an opportunity to claim power. Some claim that Ali plotted Uthman’s murder. Civil war broke out. Muawija, Uthman’s cousin and governor of Syria, challenged Ali’s right to rule. Ali prepared for war but was murdered by an angry former supporter. The followers of Ali became known as Shiites from the Arabic meaning “the party of Ali.” Those who believe that the election of the first three caliphs was valid and who claim to follow the Sunna reject the Shiite idea of the Imam, and are called the Sunnis.    (ATC, p.67-68)(WSJ, 1/12/08, p.A6)656        The Imam Ali mosque in Najaf marks the grave of Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed and a central figure in Shiite Islam.    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.A16)661        Jan 24, Ali ibn Abu Talib, caliph of Islam (656-61), was murdered. Caliph Ali, son-in-law of Mohammed, was assassinated and his followers (Shiites) broke from the majority Muslim group.    (SFC, 3/16/02, p.A14)(MC, 1/24/02)855        Ahmad ibn Hanbal (b.780), Muslim scholar, died in Iraq. He is considered the founder of the 4th school of Sunni Islam. The four schools of Sunni Islam include: a) The Hanafi school, named after Imam Abu Hanifa, predominates in the territories formerly under the Ottoman Empire and in Muslim India and Pakistan; it relies heavily on consensus and analogical reasoning in addition to the Quran and sunna. B) The Maliki school, named after Malik ibn Anas, is dominant in upper Egypt and West Africa; developed in Medina, it emphasizes use of hadith (sayings or acts) that were current in the Prophet’s city. C) The school of Muhammad ibn Idris ash Shafii, prevailing in Indonesia, stresses reasoning by analogy. D) The fourth legal school is that of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, which is the school adhered to in Saudi Arabia.    (http://countrystudies.us/saudi-arabia/26.htm)1174        Nureddin, the ruler of Syria died. Saladin, the vizier of Egypt, married Nureddin’s widow and assumed control of both state. The Ayyubids under Saladin spent the next decade launching conquests throughout the region and by 1183, the territories under their control included Egypt, Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia.    (ON, 6/07, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayyubid_dynasty)1324-1325    Mansa Musa, king of Mali, made the 3,500 mile pilgrimage to Mecca. He traveled with a very large retinue that included 80 camels and 500 slaves. An Arab chronicler said he was surrounded by over 10,000 of his subjects.    (ATC, p.119)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)1400s        The Saud dynasty was founded near Riyadh.    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)1511        In Mecca, Arabia, there was an attempt to ban coffee.    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.90)1517        Jan 22, Turks conquered Cairo. Cairo and Mecca were captured by the Turks and Arabia came under Turkish rule.    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(MC, 1/22/02)1703        Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (d.1792), Islamic theologian and founder of Wahhabism, was born in Arabia. He set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity” (1736). Wahhabism, a puritan branch of Sunni Islam, was founded by al-Wahhab in a poor part of Arabia called Najd. Saudi armies helped to spread Wahhabi Islamic reform. A Salafi, from the Arabic word Salaf (literally meaning predecessors or early generations), is an adherent of a contemporary movement in Sunni Islam that is sometimes called Salafism or Wahhabism. Salafis themselves insist that their beliefs are simply pure Islam as practiced by the first three generations of Muslims and that they should not be regarded as a sect. [see 1744]    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(www.concise.britannica.com)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salafi)1710        Muhammad Ibn Saud was born.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1742-1765    In Arabia Muhammad bin Saud Al Saud allied with Wahhabists and expanded the family domain.    (Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.6)1744        In Arabia Muhammad Ibn Saud, local ruler of Ad-Dar’ia forged a political and family alliance with Muslim scholar and reformer Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab. Abdul Aziz, the son of Ibn Saud, married the daughter of Imam Muhammad.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1773        Riyadh fell to Abdul Aziz.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1780        The Ottomans build the al-Ajyad Castle in Mecca to protect the city and its Muslim shrines from invaders. The castle was torn down by the Saudis in 2001 to make way for a trade center and hotel complex. Turkey called this a “cultural massacre.”    (SFC, 1/8/02, p.A6)1792        Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (b.1703), conservative Islamic theologian, died. He founded Wahhabism and set out his ideas in “The Book of Unity” (1736). In 2004 Natana J. Delong-Bas authored “Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad.”    (www.concise.britannica.com)(WSJ, 7/20/04, p.D8)1801        Apr 21, Saudi Arabs led Sunni raids into Karbala, Iraq, killing about 5,000 people.    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.65)(http://tinyurl.com/5qdnf3)1803        Saud ibn Abdul Aziz, son of Abdul Aziz, captured the Holy City of Makkah.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1804        The Wahhabis captured Medina, Arabia.    (NW, 9/30/02, p.33)1806        Apr 21, Saudi Arabs led Sunni raids into Najaf, Iraq, killing about 5,000 people.    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.65)(http://tinyurl.com/5qdnf3)1807        Saud al-Saud invaded Karbala, Iraq, for the second time in 1807, but he could not occupy it.    (www.islamicsupremecouncil.org/CMS/Topics/Wahhabism/118121372002.htm)1811        The Turks dispatched Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali to overthrow the Wahhabis and reinstate Ottoman sovereignty in Arabia.    (NW, 9/30/02, p.33)1813        The Wahhabis were driven from Mecca. They returned a century later as rulers of the new state of Saudi Arabia.    (WSJ, 7/20/04, p.D8)1814        Saud ibn Abdul Aziz died. Prior to his death Muhammad Ali Ottoman Viceroy of Egypt, retook Hijaz, captured the son of Saud ibn Abdul Aziz and executed him in Istanbul.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1815        Britain took action against pirate sheikhs protected by the Wahhabis, later rulers of Saudi Arabia, because ships of the East India Company were attacked in int’l. waters. Britain allied with the ruler of Muscat and Oman and Mohamed Ali of Egypt.    (WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)1824        The Saud family established a new capital at Riyadh.    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)1837        Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1787-1860), an Algeria-born mendicant  founded the Sanusi, a Sufi order, in Mecca. Beida, Libya, later became the seat of the Sanusi.    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.27)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senussi)1860s-1890s    The Saud family moved to exile in Kuwait when the Ottoman Empire conquered much of Arabia.    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)1865        Faisal bin Turki, the successor of Turki, died. He won control of most of Nejd and Hasa by the time of his death.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1880        Sadiq Bey, an Egyptian army colonel, took the first known photographs of Mecca and Medina. He traveled extensively between 1860-1880 and kept itineraries of his travels. The photos were sold to the Saudi government in 1998.    (WSJ, 6/19/98, p.W12)1883        May 20, Faisal ibn Husayn (d.1933), the 3rd son of the grand sherif of Mecca, was born in Mecca. He later became 1st king of Syria (1920) and Iraq (1921).    (www.wordiq.com/definition/Faisal_I_of_Iraq)1891        Muhammad bin Rashid, a tribal leader in Hail, captured Riyadh. Rashid had already taken much of Saud territory and concluded a pact with Turkey. Abdul Rahman bin Faisal, leader of the Al Saud family, was forced to leave.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1901        Dec, Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud) left Kuwait with some 40 friends with plans to attack Riyadh.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1902        Jan, Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud) made an assault on Masmak fort and recaptured Riyadh.    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1902        Saud ibn Abdul-Aziz, son of ibn-Saud and brother of Faisal was born. He ruled Saudi Arabia from 1953-1964.    (www.geocities.com/saudhouse_p/alsaudf.htm)1904        Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz (d.1975) later king Saudi Arabia, was born.    (www.geocities.com/saudhouse_p/alsaudf.htm)1906        Abdul Aziz regained control of the Nejd region.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1906-1926    Saudi forces captured the Al Hasa, Asir and Al Hijaz regions, unifying much of Arabia under Saudi rule.    (WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)1906        Abdul Aziz regained control of the Hasa region.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1908        Sep 1, The first railway in modern Saudi Arabia, the Hejaz railway from Jordan’s border to Medina, reached Medina. This narrow gauge railway was shut down in 1915.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 6/27/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_Railways_Organization)1908        Hussein (1854-1931) became Emir of Mecca and continued to 1917 when he proclaimed himself King of Hejaz, which received international recognition. He initiated the Arab Revolt in 1916 against the increasingly nationalistic Ottoman Empire during the course of the First World War.    (Econ, 3/19/11, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hussein_bin_Ali,_Sharif_of_Mecca)1916          May 9, The Sykes-Picot Agreement was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. The boundaries of this agreement still remains in much of the common border between Syria and Iraq. Britain and France carved up the Levant into an assortment of monarchies, mandates and emirates. The agreement enshrined Anglo-French imperialist ambitions at the end of WW II. Syria and Lebanon were put into the French orbit, while Britain claimed Jordan, Iraq, the Gulf states and the Palestinian Mandate. Sir Mark Sykes (d.1919 at age 39) and Francois Picot made the deal.    (WSJ, 2/27/00, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sykes-Picot_Agreement)1916        Jun 10, Mecca, under control of the Turks, fell to the Arabs during the Great Arab Revolt. Sharif Hussein, Arab Emir of Mecca, led the revolt.    (HN, 6/10/98)(ON, 10/05, p.7)1916        Oct, T.E. Lawrence (of Arabia) met with Feisal Hussain for the 1st time.    (http://tinyurl.com/3rd3h)1916        Nov, T.E. Lawrence was assigned as the British liaison to Arab Prince Feisal Hussain.    (http://tinyurl.com/3rd3h)1917        Jul 2, An Arab army led by Feisal Hussein and Bedouin chief Auda Abu Taiya fought Turkish forces at Aqaba killing 300 and capturing 160 Turkish soldiers.    (ON, 10/05, p.8)1917        Jul 6, During World War I, Arab forces led by T.E. Lawrence and Auda Abu Tayi captured the port of Aqaba from the Turks.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 7/6/08)1918        Sep 27, Arab forces attacked and seized Deraa (Jordan).    (ON, 10/05, p.8)1918        Oct 1, The main Arab force entered Damascus (Syria).    (ON, 10/05, p.9)1918        Arab Prince Feisal took control of Syria.    (ON, 10/05, p.9)1918        Lawrence of Arabia blew up the Hijaz railway line in Saudi Arabia.    (Econ, 4/25/09, p.70)1921        The Ikhwan fighters under Abdul Aziz took the Jebelshammar region.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)(WSJ, 1/7/02, p.A10)1921        Winston Churchill and T.E. Lawrence promoted “the sherifian solution,” under which the Hashemite family– Hussein, the sherif of Mecca, and his sons, would rule over the region under Britain’s eye.    (Econ, 7/19/03, p.69)1921        At the Cairo Conference Britain and France carved up Arabia and created Jordan under Emir Abdullah; his brother Faisal became King of Iraq. France was given influence over Syria and Jewish immigration was allowed into Palestine.     (HNQ, 6/20/99)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.D3)1923        King Fahd was born in Riyadh.    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)(NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1924        Mar 3, Kemal Ataturk forced the abolition of the Muslim caliphate through the protesting assembly and banned all Kurdish schools, publications and associations. This ended the Ottoman Empire and created the modern Middle East, though Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia were still colonies of Britain and France.    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)(SSFC, 10/14/01, p.A3)1924        Oct, The Kingdom of the Hijaz (later Saudi Arabia) was short lived with King Hussain abdicating in favor of his son Ali. Hussain was exiled to Cyprus, eventually dying in Amman in 1930. Ali himself departed the Hijaz in December 1925.    (www.rogersstudy.co.uk/hejaz/al_nahda/al_nahda.html)1924        Ibn Saud, king of the Nejd, conquered Hussein’s kingdom of Hijaz and launched Wahhabi rule over Saudi Arabia.    (Econ, 7/19/03, p.69)1924-1926    Abdul Aziz took Makkah, Madina and Asir.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1926        Jan,  Abdul Aziz was declared King of Hejaz and the Sultan of Nejd and its Dependencies.     (www.rogersstudy.co.uk/hejaz/al_nahda/al_nahda.html)1927        Jan, Abdul Aziz became King of Hejaz, Nejd and its Dependencies.    (www.rogersstudy.co.uk/hejaz/al_nahda/al_nahda.html)1927        May 20, Saudi Arabia became independent of Great Britain with the Treaty of Jedda.    (MC, 5/20/02)1927-1928    King Abd al-Aziz crushed an uprising be fanatical Islamist tribes of central Arabia.    (WSJ, 6/30/04, p.A7)1931        Mohammad bin Laden immigrated to Saudi Arabia from Yemen. He established a construction business and built close ties with the king.    (NW, 11/19/01, p.35)1931        Osama bin Laden was born in Jidda to a Syrian mother. He was the 17th of 51 children of Muhammad bin Laden, a baggage carrier, who left Yemen in 1931. Muhammad and his brothers were the founders of a prosperous construction company. In 2004 Jonathan Randal authored “Osama: The Making of a Terrorist.”    (SFC, 12/31/00, p.B9)(WSJ, 9/2/04, p.D16)1932        Sep 22, The government of the Kingdom of the Hejaz and Nejd officially changed its name to Saudi Arabia.    (www.indiana.edu/~league/1932.htm)1932        Sep 23, In 2005 King Abdullah established this day as the official unification date of Saudi Arabia and made it an official holiday.    (Econ, 10/2/10, p.49)1932        Nov 23, The kingdoms of Nejd and Hejaz merged to become the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia under King Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud. Abdul Aziz (d.1953) proclaimed the unified Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia was named after King Ibn Saud, founder of the Saudi dynasty. Abdul Aziz al-Saud fathered 44 sons.    (SFC, 9/1/96, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 8/23/98, p.A15)(SFC, 5/26/00, p.D3)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)(AP, 11/23/02)1932        Dec 22, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was proclaimed.    (www.rogersstudy.co.uk/hejaz/al_nahda/al_nahda.html)1933        May, Saudi Arabia gave Standard Oil of California exclusive rights to explore for oil. Socal formed the California Arabian Standard Oil Co. to drill for oil in Saudi Arabia.    (www.chevron.com)(SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)1936        Jan, Standard Oil of California found some gas and oil at their 1st Saudi Arabia test well, Damman No. 1.    (www.chevron.com)1936        Mar 3, Standard Oil of California struck oil at Damman No 7. Aramco made the first commercial oil find in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The English Arabist, H. St. John Philby, orchestrated the Aramco concession in Saudi Arabia.    (HN, 3/15/98)(WSJ, 3/8/99, p.A16)(SFEC, 6/27/99, p.T3)(www.chevron.com)1936        The Texas Co. joined Standard Oil in Saudi Arabia. The joint venture eventually became the Saudi oil giant Aramco.    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)1938        Norman Lewis (d.2003), British travel writer, authored “Sand and Sea in Arabia.”    (SFC, 7/26/03, p.A22)1945        Feb 14, Saudi King Abd al-Aziz and Franklin D. Roosevelt met on a ship in the Suez Canal and reached an understanding whereby the US would protect the Saudi royal family in return for preferred access to Saudi oil. William Eddy, US minister to Saudi Arabia, arranged the meeting.    (WSJ, 10/4/01, p.A1)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.102)(http://tinyurl.com/5a3c49)1945        Mar 22, The Arab League was formed with the adoption of a charter in Cairo, Egypt. Saudi Arabia became a founding member of the UN and the Arab League.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 3/22/97)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)1947        The family-owned Olayan Group was founded in Saudi Arabia and grew to became one of the country’s largest private conglomerates.    (WSJ, 1/16/08, p.A10)1948        May 18, Arab Legion captured the fort on Mount Scopus.    (SC, 5/18/02)1948        May 18, Saudi Arabia joined the invasion of Israel.    (SC, 5/18/02)1951        Oct 20, Saudi Arabia’s modern railway was inaugurated. It was initially run by Saudi oil company, Aramco, but subsequently transferred to the state and since 1968 has been operated as a public corporation and was extended to the capital, Riyadh.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 6/27/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_Railways_Organization)1951        Saudi Arabia put the Ghawar oil field into production. It measured 20 miles wide and 175 miles long and was the largest oil field ever found.    (WSJ, 5/6/08, p.A15)1953        Prince Fahd  was appointed as the 1st Education Minister.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1953         King Abdul Aziz died. He was the founder of modern Saudi Arabia and fathered a total of 44 sons before his death. Aziz was succeeded by King Saud who ruled to 1964.    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)(WSJ, 10/22/01, p.A18)1953-1964     King Saud ruled.    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)1956        Feb 18, The US lifted its arms ban and shipped tanks to Saudi Arabia.    (EWH, 1968, p.1241)1960        Sep 14, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela formed OPEC. Fuad Rouhani (1907-2004) of Iran served as its 1st secretary-general. In 1964 he was succeeded by Abdul Rahman Bazzaz of Iraq.    (HN, 9/14/98)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)1962        May 3, William A, Eddy (b.1896), former US minister to Saudi Arabia (1944-1946), died. In 2008 Thomas W. Lippman authored “Arabian Knight: Colonel Bill Eddy, USMC, and the Rise of American Power in the Middle East.”    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.102)1962        Nov 6, Saudi Arabia abolished slavery.    (www.hrw.org/reports/1992/saudi/INTROTHR.htm)1963        Prince Fahd  was appointed as the Interior Minister.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1964        Nov 2, Faisal ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud (1904-1975) succeeded his older brother Saud bin Abdul Aziz as king of Saudi Arabia.    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faisal_of_Saudi_Arabia)1964-1975     King Faisal ruled.    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)1965        Prince Fahd  was appointed as the 2nd Deputy Prime Minister.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1965        Television arrive in Saudi Arabia. It caused riots until senior clerics grasped that they could use it to promote their faith.    (Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.9)1965-1966    King Faisal bin Abd al-Aziz defied Islamist opposition and introduced women’s education and television. There were 70 female university students in Saudi Arabia. In 2001 the number reached 200,000, 54% of the student population.    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/30/04, p.A7)1966        In Egypt Sayed Qutb (b.1906), intellectual godfather of radical Islam, was executed by Pres. Nasser. Qutb had earlier written: “A Muslim has no nationality except his belief.” He denounced western hedonism and the decadence of Muslim regimes. Qutb had spent some time in the US (1948-1951) and authored the 1951 essay “The America I Have Seen.” His brother Muhammad went into exile in Saudi Arabia where he taught at King Abdul Aziz Univ. Osama bin Laden was one of his students.    (WSJ, 3/22/04, p.A18)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.24)(Sm, 2/06, p.100)1967        June 2, Three bombs, one a car bomb, went off in the Saudi seaport town of Jidda. One outside the US Embassy, one at Grove Int’l, an American construction comp., and one at the US Military Training Mission.    (WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-7)1967        Sep 3, Muhammad Bin Laden, a Yemeni immigrant to Saudi Arabia, died in a plane crash. He left King Faisal in charge of his ~50 children.    (NW, 11/19/01, p.35)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_bin_Laden)1972        Kamal Helbawy, a London-based Egyptian and speaker on behalf of the Muslim Brotherhood, was invited to Saudi Arabia to set up the World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY).    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.24)1973        Oct 17, Arab oil-producing nations announced they would begin cutting back on oil exports to Western nations and Japan; the result was a total embargo that lasted until March 1974.    (WSJ, 11/4/96, p.C1)(AP, 10/17/97)1973        Nov 19, Saudi Arabia, Libya and other Arab states proclaimed a total ban on oil exports to the United States. Gasoline prices quadrupled from twenty-five cents per gallon to over one dollar. The New York stock market took its sharpest drop in 19 years.    (HN, 11/19/98)(www.bullnotbull.com/archive/market-01222006.html)1973        Oct 16, OPEC, the Arab oil-producing nations, announced they would begin cutting back on oil exports to Western nations and Japan. The next day, the five Arab members of the OPEC committee were joined in Kuwait by the oil ministers of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, and Syria. The result was a total embargo that lasted until March 1974 and caused oil prices to quadruple.    (www.harvardir.org/articles/1659/)(AP, 10/17/97)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)1975        Mar 25, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia was shot to death by a nephew with a history of mental illness. The nephew was beheaded the following June.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 3/25/00)1963        Prince Fahd  became Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister.    (NW, 11/26/01, p.SAS)1975        Mar 25, King Faisal ibn Abd al-Aziz (68) of Saudi Arabia was shot to death by a nephew with a history of mental illness. The nephew was beheaded the following June. In 2008 Joseph A. Kechichian authored “Faysal: Saudi Arabia’s King for All Seasons.”    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 3/25/00)(Econ, 10/04/08, p.92)1975        Jun 18, Faisal Ibn Mussed Abdul Aziz, Saudi prince, was beheaded in a Riyadh shopping center parking lot for killing his uncle the king.    (http://tinyurl.com/47da5p)1975        Saudi Arabia began nationalizing foreign oil assets with full compensation.    (WSJ, 10/4/01, p.A1)1975        Jubail was designated as a site for a new industrial city by the Saudi government, and has seen rapid expansion and industrialization since.    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jubail)1975-1982     King Khaled ruled.    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)1977        Feb 24, Pres. Carter announced the US was cutting off all military aid to Ethiopia because of its human rights violations. The unstated reason was the US desire to cooperate with Saudi Arabia to lure Somalia from the Soviet camp, an effort which was ultimately successful.    (www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Politics/africa.html)1977        Prince Turki al-Faisal was promoted to head of the General Intelligence Directorate. He resigned in 2001.    (WSJ, 10/22/01, p.A18)1978        Fred Dutton (1923-2005), Washington counsel and lobbyist for Saudi Arabia, helped get US congressional approval for a major arms sale to Saudi Arabia.    (SFC, 6/28/05, p.B5)1979        Apr 4, Bechtel Corp. announced that it had won a contract to manage construction of a 115-square-mile airport for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The cost was estimated a $3 billion.    (SFC, 4/2/04, p.F3)1979        Apr 11, Idi Amin was deposed as president of Uganda as rebels and exiles backed by Tanzanian forces seized control of Kampala. Amin escaped to Libya and settled into exile in Saudi Arabia.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 4/11/97)(SFC, 10/15/99, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idi_Amin)1979        May 20, Helen Smith (b.1956), a British nurse, died after reportedly fall from a balcony in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The bodies of Helen and Johannes Otten (35), a Dutch tugboat captain, were found in the street 70 feet below a sixth floor balcony. Helen was found lying in the road fully clothed and Johannes, whose underpants were around his thighs, was impaled upon the spiked railings surrounding the apartment block. Helen’s father, Ron Smith, did not allow her burial because he did not believe official Saudi and British reports that the death was an accident. He believed his daughter was murdered and that her body could provide forensic evidence to expose a cover up. In 2009 Smith and his ex-wife decided to cremate their daughter before they both died.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 11/9/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helen_Smith_%28nurse%29)1979        Nov 16, Some 200 armed men and women, Mahadi-ists, seized the Grand Mosque in Mecca. They denounced the monarchy and demanded an end to corrupting modernization and “foreign ways.” Saudi preacher Juhayman al Uteybi led the radicals. French special forces shot dead all the Wahhabi extremists.    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.C3)(WSJ, 11/12/03, p.A18)(WSJ, 9/18/07, p.A8)1979        Dec 4, In Saudi Arabia security forces overran the Grand Mosque in Mecca, which had been seized on Nov 16. One of two African-American converts, who had participated in the take-over of the mosque, was killed. The other was later released and returned to the US. In 2007 Yaroslav Trofinov authored “The Siege of Mecca.”    (WSJ, 9/18/07, p.A8)1979        Osama bin Laden left Saudi Arabia to fight against the Soviets in Afghanistan, where he laid the groundwork for his al-Qaeda network.    (NW, 11/19/01, p.35)1980        Jan 9, Saudi Arabia beheaded 63 people in towns across the country for their roles in the November 1979 raid on the Grand Mosque in Mecca.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 1/9/00)(SSFC, 10/21/01, p.C3)1980        Aug 19, 301 people aboard a Saudi Arabian L-1011 died as the jetliner made a fiery emergency landing at the Riyadh airport.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 8/19/99)1981        Apr 21, Pres. Reagan called for support for the sale of AWACS to Saudi Arabia. The proposed AWACS sale was just the beginning of a secret $50 billion plan to build surrogate military bases in Saudi Arabia.    (http://tinyurl.com/98qre)(http://eightiesclub.tripod.com/id110.htm)1981        May 25, Sheik Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan (1918-2004), United Arab Emirates President, urged in 5 other Arab monarchies (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia) to form the Gulf Cooperation Council. The unified economic agreement between the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council was signed on 11 November 1981 in Riyadh.    (Econ, 11/20/04, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_Cooperation_Council)1981        Oct 28, The US Senate voted for the sale of AWACS to Saudi Arabia. Fred Dutton (1923-2005), Washington counsel and lobbyist for Saudi Arabia, helped get US congressional approval for a 2nd major arms sale to Saudi Arabia.    (http://tinyurl.com/98qre)(SFC, 6/28/05, p.B5)1981        Prince Fahd of Saudi Arabia proposed an 8-point peace plan to end the Arab-Israeli conflict. It was adopted by the Arab League after some controversy.    (Econ, 8/6/05, p.71)1982        Jun 13, King Khalid of Saudi Arabia died at the age of 69; he was succeeded by a half brother, Crown Prince Fahd.    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-10)(AP, 6/13/02)   1982        Adnan Khashoggi, an arms dealer from Saudi Arabia, settled divorce proceedings with his wife Soraya for $950 million plus property.    (SFC, 2/14/98, p.E6)1983        Nov 25, Syria and Saudi Arabia announced a cease-fire in PLO civil war in Tripoli.    (www.defense-update.com/2005/02/arafats-dissidents-challenge-to-abu.html)1983        In Saudi Arabia the King Khalid Int’l. Airport opened in Riyadh and was touted as the largest in the world. One of the terminals was mothballed at opening and remained so in 2008.    (WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A1)(Econ, 4/26/08, p.15)1983        Sulaiman Al Rajhi and his brother Saleh won permission to open Saudi Arabia’s first Islamic bank. They had begun changing money for traders and pilgrims in the 1940s. In 2007 Sulaiman Al Rajhi’s fortune was estimated at $12 billion and the Al-Rajhi Bank was the largest Islamic bank in Saudi Arabia.    (WSJ, 1/26/07, p.A1)1983-2005    Prince Bandar bin Sultan served as Saudi Arabia’s ambassador in Washington. In 2006 William Simpson authored “The Prince: The Secret Story of the World’s Most Intriguing Royal, Prince Bandar bin Sultan” (www.saudiembassy.net/Country/Government/BandarBio.asp).    (Econ, 12/2/06, p.86)1984        Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) members (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia, UAR) agreed on the creation of a two-brigade (10,000 troops) Peninsula Shield Force, based in Saudi Arabia near the Kuwaiti and Iraqi borders.    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peninsula_Shield)1985        Britain under PM Thatcher signed an $80 billion contract with Saudi Arabia to provide 120 fighter jets and other military equipment over a period of 20 years. Prince Bandar bin Sultan, Saudi Arabia’s ambassador to the US, helped negotiate the deal.    (SFC, 6/8/07, p.A16)1986        Apr 1, World oil prices dipped below $10 a barrel.    (MC, 4/1/02)1987        Jul 31, Iranian pilgrims and riot police clashed in the Muslim holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The Saudi government blamed Iranians for the resulting 402 deaths.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 7/31/97)(AP, 2/1/04)1987        Aug 1, Iranians attacked the Saudi Arabian and Kuwaiti embassies in Tehran as word spread of rioting in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, a day earlier that claimed some 400 lives, most of them Iranian pilgrims.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 8/1/97)1987        Aug 25, Saudi Arabia denounced Iran’s government as a “group of terrorists,” and said its forces would deal firmly with any Iranian attempts to attack the Saudis’ Muslim holy places or vast oil fields.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 8/25/97)1988        Saudi-born Osama bin Laden founded al Qaida (the base), a Sunni fundamentalist operational hub for terrorist activities. The organization’s intent was to establish an Islamic caliphate throughout the world.    (SFC, 8/28/98, p.A3)(SSFC, 7/30/06, p.A10)1989        Jan 12, Idi Amin was expelled from Zaire (later CongoDRC) and forced to return to Saudi Arabia.    (www.moreorless.au.com/killers/amin.html)1989        Jul 9, Two bombs explode in Mecca, killing one pilgrim, wounding 16. Saudi authorities blame Iranian-inspired terrorists and later beheaded 16 Kuwaiti Shiite Muslims for bombings. Iran denied involvement.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 2/1/04)1989        Rafik Hariri financed a gathering of Lebanese politicians at the Saudi city of Taif to hammer out a deal to disband militias and distribute power more equitably. The Taif Agreement maintained sectarian divisions in government and led to the end of the civil war. It stipulated that Syria withdraw its troops to the border and leave within 2 years.    (SFC, 9/28/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/4/02, p.A13)(Econ, 2/19/05, p.43)1989        The $140 million King Fahd Cultural Center was completed on the outskirts of Riyadh. It has never been opened to the public and was maintained by a fulltime staff of 180 people.    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A20)1990        Jul 2, Some 1402 Muslim pilgrims were killed in a stampede inside a pedestrian tunnel leading to Mecca in Saudi Arabia. It was worst hajj tragedy of modern times.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 7/2/00)(AP, 2/1/04)1990        Aug 7, President Bush ordered U.S. troops and warplanes to Saudi Arabia to guard the oil-rich desert kingdom against a possible invasion by Iraq. The US Persian Gulf War began. Operation Desert Shield ended Feb 28, 1991. It cost $8.1 billion and left 383 US casualties with 458 wounded.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 8/7/99)(WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A8)(MC, 8/7/02)1990        Aug 8, As the Persian Gulf crisis deepened, American forces began taking up positions in Saudi Arabia; Iraq announced it had annexed Kuwait as its 19th province; President Bush warned Iraqi President Saddam Hussein that “a line has been drawn in the sand.”    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 8/8/00)(MC, 8/8/02)1990        Aug 11, Egyptian and Moroccan troops arrived in Saudi Arabia to join US forces in helping to protect the desert kingdom from possible Iraqi attack.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 8/11/00)1990        Aug, 540,000 American troops assembled to drive Iraqi forces from Kuwait.    (WP. 6/29/96, p.A22)1990        Sep 22, Saudi Arabia expelled most of the Yemeni and Jordanian envoys in Riyadh, accusing them of unspecified “activities jeopardizing the peace and security of the kingdom.”    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 9/22/00)1990        Nov 6, In Saudi Arabia a group of women got into cars and drove the streets of Riyadh in defiance of a government ban. The protest, which made headlines around the world, cost the 47 female drivers and passengers dearly. They were arrested, lost their jobs for 2 1/2 years, were banned from travel for a year and were condemned by the powerful clergy as harlots. The led interior minister Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz to ban women from driving.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 11/14/08)(AFP, 6/16/12)1990        Nov 21, President Bush arrived in Saudi Arabia, where he conferred with Saudi King Fahd and Kuwait’s exiled emir.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 11/21/00)1990        Yemen’s refusal to endorse military action against Iraq after Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait so annoyed the governments of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait that they expelled a million Yemeni migrant workers, costing the country huge sums in remittances.    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.45)1991        Jan 17, On the first day of Operation Desert Storm, US-led forces hammered Iraqi targets in an effort to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. A defiant Iraqi President Saddam Hussein declared that the “mother of all battles” had begun. Iraq attacked Israel with ten Scud missiles. The US Patriot defense missile was used in battle for the first time to shoot down a Scud fired at Saudi Arabia.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 1/17/01)1991        Jan 22, During the Gulf War, Iraq fired six Scud missiles into Saudi Arabia; all were either intercepted, or fell into unpopulated areas. However, in Tel Aviv, a Scud eluded the Patriot missile defense system and struck the city, resulting in three deaths.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 1/22/01)1991        Jan 24, A brief skirmish occurred high above the Persian Gulf as a Saudi warplane shot down two Iraqi jets.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 1/24/01)1991        Jan 29, Iraqi forces attacked into Saudi Arabian town of Kafji, but were turned back by Coalition forces.    (HN, 1/29/99)1991        Jan 30, The first major ground battle of the Gulf War was fought at the frontier port of Khafji in Saudi Arabia; eleven US Marines were killed, seven of them by “friendly fire.”    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 1/30/01)1991        Jan 31, During the Gulf War, Army Specialist Melissa Rathbun-Nealy and Army Specialist David Lockett were captured by Iraqi forces near the Kuwaiti-Saudi border; both were eventually released. Allied forces claimed victory against Iraqi attackers at Khafji, Saudi Arabia.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 1/31/01)1991        Feb 23, French forces unofficially started the Persian Gulf ground war by crossing the Saudi-Iraqi border. Lessons learned in the savage 1972 Eastertide Offensive paid off at the Battle of Khafji in the Gulf War almost two decades later.    (HN, 2/23/98)1991        Feb 25, During the Persian Gulf War, 28 Americans were killed when an Iraqi Scud missile hit a U.S. barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 2/25/98)1991        Mar 24, General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the American commander of Operation Desert Storm, told reporters in Saudi Arabia the United States was closer to establishing a permanent military headquarters on Arab soil.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 3/24/01)1991        Apr 29, US troops continued airlifting Iraqi refugees from a camp in southern Iraq to Saudi Arabia.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 4/29/01)1991        Jul 11, A Nigerian Airlines jet carrying Muslim pilgrims crashed at the Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, int’l airport, killing all 261 people on board. The plane was a Canadian-chartered DC-8.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 7/11/97)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)1991        Khalid bin Sultan was the commander of the Saudi military forces during the Gulf war. He later became the principal owner of Al-Hayat, an Arabic language daily published in London.    (SFC, 1/4/97, p.A3)1991        A Saudi businessman started the 1st independent Arabic news and entertainment channel, the London-based Middle East Broadcasting Co.    (WSJ, 10/25/00, p.A17)1992        Sep 11, President Bush announced he was approving the sale of 72 F-15 jet fighters to Saudi Arabia.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 9/11/97)1992        In Saudi Arabia King Fahd decreed a basic law that for the 1st time outlined an institutional structure for the country. A law was passed that allowed the king to name any of his brothers or nephews as a successor, and to replace him at will.    (WSJ, 9/25/02, p.A11)(Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.6)1992        A team of investigators announced the discovery of he long lost Arabian city of Ubar, which had disappeared around the early 6th century. George Hedges (1952-2009), a Hollywood litigator, and filmmaker Nicholas Clapp, participated in the find. Clapp later authored “The Road to Ubar: Finding the Atlantis of the Sands” (1999).    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.A12)1993        Saudi wheat production, part of a self-sufficiency program, grew from a few thousand tons on the mid 1970s to 4.5 million tons. The production was having a negative impact on water reserves and production was cut.    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.62)1994        May 23, Some 270 pilgrims, most of them Indonesian, were killed in a stampede in Mecca as worshippers surge toward cavern for symbolic ritual of “stoning the devil.”    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 2/1/04)1994        The Saudis chose AT&T for a $4 billion telecommunications project.    (WSJ, 12/18/95, p.A-10)1994        The Saudi family of Osama bin Laden disowned him. The Binladin Group later invested with the Washington-based Carlyle Group, which also employed George Bush Sr.    (NW, 11/19/01, p.35)1994        In Saudi Arabia Osama Bin Laden, the scion of a wealthy Saudi family, was stripped of his Saudi citizenship. He financed a host of hard-line groups from Egypt to Algeria. His fortune was estimated at $250 mil.    (SFC, 8/14/96, p.A10,12)1994        Safar al-Hawaly and Salman al-Awdeh, religious militants and critics of the government, were jailed.    (SFC, 8/15/96, p.C3)1994-1996    The BBC ran an Arabic language satellite TV service from a Saudi-backed company called Orbit. It ended after Saudi’s objected to the BBC’s programming.    (Econ, 10/29/05, p.57)1995        Nov 13, A car bomb killed 7 people, including five Americans, and injured about 60 at a military training facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.    (WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 6/27/96, p.A10)(SFEC, 11/10/96, p.T5)(AP, 11/13/00)1995        Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdel-Aziz has been in charge of the 80,000 man national guard since the early 60’s.    (WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-11)1995        A record 192 people were beheaded.    (SFC, 8/27/96, p.A10)1996        May 31, Four Saudi citizens were beheaded for the bombing of a US facility last Nov 13. The explosion shattered the Saudi Arabian National Guard training center, and killed 5 Americans and 2 Indians. [the date doesn’t seem to jive]    (SFC, 6/1/96, p.A12)1996        May, Osama bin Laden was driven out of Sudan under pressure from the Clinton administration. His horse, “Swift Like the Wind,” was left behind. He had lived there for some years running a construction company and allegedly recruiting and training terrorists. Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, a Saudi Arabian-backed jihadist leader, invited bin Laden back to Afghanistan and bin Laden returned.    (SFC, 8/21/98, p.A2)(SFC, 12/17/04, p.W4)(Econ, 9/17/05, p.40)(WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A4)1996        Jun 4, The Saudi debt load is already equal to about  $100 bil.    (WSJ, 6/4/96, p.A12)1996        Jun 25, At least 19 Americans were killed at a US base near Dhahran. Another 105 suffered serious injuries from a truck bomb estimated at 5,000 pounds at the Khobar Towers apartment complex adjacent to King Abdul Aziz Air Base. About 5,000 US troops served in Saudi Arabia. US, French and British aircraft resumed flying 100 missions per day over southern Iraq from Saudi Arabia. In 1997 intelligence information tied a senior Iranian intelligence officer to Hani Abd Rahim Sayegh, a man who fled Saudi Arabia shortly after the bombing. In 1999 the US threatened was set to deport Hani al-Sayegh to Saudi Arabia. Sayegh feared torture and asked for US asylum. Sayegh was deported Oct 10. In 2000 Ahmad Behbahani told a 60 Minutes journalist from a refugee camp in Turkey that he proposed the Pan Am operation and coordinated the 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia. In 2001 13 Saudis and one Lebanese man were indicted for the bombing that killed 19 American airmen and wounded nearly 400 others. In 2006 a US judge ruled that Iran financed the bombing and owes families of those killed $254 million.    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A22)(SFEC, 4/13/97, p.A14)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A10)(SFC, 10/12/99, p.C16)(SFC, 6/5/00, p.A9)(SFC, 6/22/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/23/06, p.A1)1996        Jun 25, Later reports said that Osama bin Laden, an exiled Saudi billionaire, bankrolled the bombing of the US base that killed 19 US servicemen. He was an advocate of strict Islamic rule and had said that he would campaign to overthrow the Saudi royal family. He had lived in the Sudan for 5 1/2 years and recently moved to Afghanistan and was accepted by the Taliban. In 1998 a senior Saudi official absolved Iran of any involvement in the bombing. In 2000 it was reported that the Bin Laden family firm was awarded the contract to rebuild the Khobar Towers.    (SFC, 3/7/97, p.A17)(SFC, 5/23/98, p.A12)(SFC, 11/18/00, p.A12)1996        Dec, Yvonne Gilford (55), an Australian nurse, was stabbed and bludgeoned to death at the King Fahd Military Medical Center in Dammam. Two other nurses, Deborah Parry (38) and Lucille McLaughlan (30) were accused of the murder. Their sentences were commuted and the accused nurses were released May 20, 1998. McLaughlan faced charges in Scotland of stealing $2,800 from a dying AIDS patient in 1996 before leaving for Saudi Arabia.    (SFC, 9/26/97, p.A14)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.A19)1996        Dec, Abdul-Karim Naqshabandi, a foreign worker, was executed after refusing to falsely testify against another employer. His employer, a nephew of the king, demanded his death on false charges of witchcraft.    (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A15)1996        Saudi Arabia’s King Fahd (73) ceded power to his half-brother, Crown Prince Abdullah, who is considered to be more of a traditionalist.    (WSJ, 1/2/96, p. A-1)1996        The United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan recognized the Taliban after they seized the Afghan capital Kabul. All three countries cut ties with the Taliban after it sheltered al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden following the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the US.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 2/24/06)1997        Mar 2, Saudi Arab billionaire Prince al-Waleed bin Talal acquired 5% of Apple.    (SC, 3/2/02)1997        Apr 15, In Saudi Arabia at least 343 Muslim pilgrims died in a fire on a plain outside the holy city of Mecca and injured 1290. The fires stemmed from cooking gas canisters. Aid workers and diplomats said the death toll was at least 500.    (SFC, 4/16/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A1)(AP, 4/15/98)(AP, 2/1/04)1997        Dec 18, It was reported the Prince Alwaleed bin Talal bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud was building a 984-foot structure called “The Kingdom Centre” in central Riyadh at a cost of $427 million.    (WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A1)1998        Mar, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela and Mexico began talking to reduce oil output. They pledged to take 2-3% of the world’s oil production off the market in what came to be called the Riyadh Pact.    (WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A1)   1998        Apr 9, In Saudi Arabia it was reported that 2.3 million Muslims made the pilgrimage, hajj, to Mecca this year. Over 150 pilgrims died at the “stoning of the devil” ritual during a stampede that occurred on the last day of the annual pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.    (SFC, 4/9/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/10/98, p.A14)(SFC, 2/12/03, p.A9)(AP, 4/9/08)1998        Jun 4, Mexico, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela agreed to cuts in oil production and exports for the 2nd time this year in order to raise prices.    (WSJ, 6/5/98, p.A2)1998        Jun, Prince Turki al Faisal of Saudi Arabia, chief of Saudi intelligence, negotiated with the Taliban in Kandahar for the ouster or custody for trial in Saudi Arabia of Osama bin Laden. Negotiations broke down after the Aug 7 US embassy bombings in Africa.    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.A15)1998        Jul 20, Saudi Arabia attacked a Yemeni island in the Red Sea and killed 3 guards. 3 islands and parts of the Empty Quarter, a vast desert with potential for oil, were under contention.    (SFEC, 7/21/98, p.A7)1998        Saudi Arabia, in response to a massive outbreak of rift-valley fever, imposed a trade ban to prevent nomadic herders from selling sheep and goats for sacrifice during the hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. The government opted to buy more expensive Australian livestock instead.    (Econ, 2/3/07, p.80)1998        The Saudi population was about 12 million. In 2006 it reached 23 million. The forecast for 2020 was 33 million.    (SFC, 5/23/98, p.A12)(Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.12)1999        Mar 19, Saudi Arabia permitted some 18,000 destitute Iraqis to cross the border for the annual pilgrimage to Mecca.    (SFC, 3/20/99, p.A8)1999        Jun 27, It was reported that Saudi Arabia had recently opened its borders to upscale travel groups.    (SFEC, 6/27/99, p.T3)1999        Aug 21, Prince Faisal bin Fahd, the eldest son of King Fahd, died of a heart attack at age 54. He headed the Arab Sports Federation and had just returned from the Arab Games in Jordan.    (SFEC, 8/22/99, p.D5)1999        Nov 27, Yemeni military sources reported that 2 Yemeni soldiers had been killed over the last few days in border clashes with Saudi Arabia.    (SFEC, 11/28/99, p.A26)1999        Dec 9, The first day of Ramadan. In Saudi Arabia a young man was scheduled to be beheaded by this day unless the family of a man he killed, while performing the mizmar dance, receive some $1.3 million in blood money.    (SFC, 12/6/99, p.A13)1999        Anthony Cave Brown published “Oil, God, and Gold: The Story of Aramco and the Saudi Kings.”    (WSJ, 3/8/99, p.A16)1999        Saudi police arrested Mohammed Hamdi al-Ahdal and jailed him for 14 months for maintaining contact with Osama bin Laden. He was then deported to Yemen.    (SFC, 11/26/03, p.A10)2000        Jun 12, Saudi Arabia and Yemen signed an agreement to end decades of border disputes.    (SFC, 6/13/00, p.A11)2000        Oct 14, A Saudi jetliner was hijacked with over 100 people and landed in Baghdad. 2 hijackers were arrested.    (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.A10)2000        Nov 8, Saudi Arabia opened its border with Iraq and signed export contracts to nearly $600 million under exceptions to US sanctions.    (WSJ, 11/8/00, p.A1)2000        Nov 17, A car bomb in Riyadh killed Christopher Rodway, a British technician. In 2001 3 Westerners were arrested in connection with the bombing.    (SFC, 11/18/00, p.A12)(SFC, 2/5/01, p.A10)2000        Nov 22, In Riyadh an explosion hit a car and injured 3 British citizens. In 2001 3 Westerners were arrested in connection with the bombing.    (SFC, 11/24/00, p.D8)(SFC, 2/5/01, p.A10)2000        Nov 22, Yemen identified the bombers of the USS Cole as 2 Saudi Arabian citizens with Yemeni family roots. One was named Abdul Mohsen al-Taifi and both had suspected ties to Osama bin Laden.    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.A22)2000        Dec 31, Six Persian Gulf nations (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) signed a regional defense pact.    (SFC, 1/1/01, p.A10)2001        Jan 26, A UN panel criticized Saudi Arabia for discriminating against women, harassing minors and for punishments that included flogging and stoning.    (SFC, 1/27/01, p.C16)2001        Jan, Abdulaziz al-Kohaji, engineering student and son of a Saudi oilman, went missing from the Community College of Denver. His body was found in a landfill in Erie, 15 miles north of Denver, a month later and police said he had been taped to a chair and strangled before being thrown into a trash bin. Mishal al-Suwaidi, Tariq al-Dossary and al-Yousif, suspects in the murder, were acquaintances of al-Kohaji and prosecutors said the motive was robbery. Suwaidi and Dossary fled to Saudi Arabia. Yousif was convicted in the US and sentenced to life. In 2004 the family of Kohaji pardoned the Suwaidi and Dossary and save them from execution.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 1/2/05)2001        Mar 4, Muslim pilgrims climbed Mount Arafat as some 2 million gathered for the annual hajj to Mecca.    (WSJ, 3/5/01, p.A1)2001        Mar 5, Muslim pilgrims began the stoning of the three pillars symbolizing the devil as part of the annual hajj to Mecca. 35 people suffocated to death during the stoning of the devil ritual.    (WSJ, 3/5/01, p.A1)(SFC, 3/6/01, p.A11)2001        Mar 15, Chechen rebels hijacked a Russian plane with 174 people after it left Turkey. They forced a landing in Medina.    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A14)2001        Mar 16, Saudi commandos freed over 100 hijacked hostages held by Chechen rebels. 3 people were killed including a hijacker, a flight attendant and a passenger.    (SFC, 3/17/01, p.A10)2001        Mar 25, The Higher Committee for Scientific Research and Islamic Law claimed that Pokemon games and cards have “possessed the minds” of Saudi children.    (SFC, 3/27/01, p.F2)2001        Apr 16, Iran and Saudi Arabia signed a pact to fight terrorism and drug trafficking.    (SFC, 4/18/01, p.A13)2001        Aug 4, In Florida an immigration official turned back Muhammed al-Kahtani (al-Qahtani), a Saudi who had flown in from London with $2,800 in cash and no return ticket. He was later captured in Afghanistan and detained at Guantanamo after officials suspected that he was the intended 20th hijacker for the Nov 11 attacks. In 2008 the Pentagon dropped charges against al-Qahtani.    (Econ, 2/16/08, p.39)(AP, 5/13/08)2001        Aug 31, Prince Turki al-Faisal resigned as head of the General Intelligence Directorate and Prince Nawwaf took over.    (WSJ, 10/22/01, p.A18)2001        Sep 13, A private Lear jet with 3 Saudi passengers flew from Tampa, Fla., to Lexington, Ky., as part of an effort to help prominent Saudis, who feared reprisals over the Sep 11 attack by al-Qaida in NYC.    (WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A1)2001        Sep 14-24, Six chartered flights carrying mostly Saudi nationals departed from the US. [see Sep 20]    (WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A4)2001        Sep 20, A chartered flight left the US with members of the sprawling bin Laden family. The FBI interviewed 22 of the 26 people aboard.    (WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A4)2001        Sep 23, The 6-member Persian “Gulf Cooperation Council” (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAR) met in Jidda and pledged support for an int’l. coalition against terrorism.    (SFC, 9/24/01, p.A7)2001        Sep 25, Saudi Arabia withdrew diplomatic recognition of the Afghan Taliban government.    (SFC, 9/26/01, p.A1)2001        Oct 6, A bomb exploded in Khobar. 2 people were killed and 4 were injured.    (SSFC, 10/7/01, p.A17)2001        Oct 15, It was reported that Sheik Hamoud bin Uqlaa al-Shuaibi (80), a militant Wahhabi, called on Muslims to wage jihad on supporters of the US military action in Afghanistan.    (WSJ, 10/15/01, p.A12)2001        Oct 31, The Bush administration said the Saudi government has issued an order to freeze assets of people and groups suspected of links to terrorism.    (SFC, 11/1/01, p.A5)2001        At Washington’s request the UN Security Council ordered that the assets of Yassin Qadi, a Saudi businessman and multimillionaire, be frozen soon after the Sep 11 attacks in NYC. He was alleged to be a financier of Islamic terrorism with close links to al-Qaida. The EU froze the assets of Yasin al-Qadi, a Saudi businessman, and the Al-Barakaat International Foundation, a Sweden-based charity suspected of funding al-Qaida terror groups. In 2008 the EU’s highest court overturned the decision saying the order failed to offer those on a terror blacklist any legal rights to a judicial review under European law. Also frozen were the assets of Omar Mohammed Othman, also known as Abu Qatada, an extremist Muslim preacher from Jordan. In 2009 an EU court voided the freeze on Othman due to lack of proper judicial review. Othman has lived in Britain since 1993, has been arrested several times there under anti-terrorist legislation and currently faced deportation to Jordan.    (WSJ, 8/29/07, p.A1)(AP, 9/3/08)(AP, 6/11/09)2002        Jan 4, A WSJ editorial by former US Army officer Ralph Peters blamed Saudi Arabia as the source of fundamentalist terrorism. “We must be prepared to seize the Saudi oil fields and administer them for the greater good.”    (WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A12)2002        Jan 13, Muslim scholars concluded a 6-day conference in Mecca and issued a definition of terrorism as: “all acts of aggression committed by individuals, groups or states against human beings, including attacks on their religion, life, intellect or property.    (WSJ, 1/14/02, p.A12)2002        Jan, Saudi Arabia began the demolition of the 222-year-old Al Ajyad Ottoman fortress on Bulbul Mountain in Mecca. A $120 million hotel complex was planned. The demolition angered Turkey and destruction was halted.    (WSJ, 1/10/02, p.A9)2002        Feb 17, Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah presented a Middle East peace plan to NY Times columnist Thomas Friedman. It included Arab recognition of Israel’s right to exist if Israel pulled back from lands that were once part of Jordan, including East Jerusalem and the West Bank.    (SFC, 2/26/02, p.A1)2002        Feb 19, In Saudi Arabia some 2 million Muslims gathered in Mecca for the annual hajj.    (SFC, 2/20/02, p.A11)2002        Mar 7, Doctors in Saudi Arabia reported that the world’s 1st uterus transplant lasted 99 days before it began to deteriorate.    (SFC, 3/7/02, p.A5)2002        Mar, A fire at a girl’s school in Mecca killed 15 students.    (WSJ, 3/19/02, p.A1)2002        Apr 4, The UN released $995 million in compensation to Kuwait for Iraq’s 1990 invasion. Most went to 1,058 individuals. Saudi Arabia received $82.6 million and Jordan got $44.9.    (SFC, 4/5/02, p.A12)2002        Apr 13, Ghazi Algosaibi, Saudi ambassador to Britain, published a poem in the Saudi daily Al Hayat  titled “The Martyrs,” in praise of Ayat Akhras, the Mar 29 Palestinian suicide bomber.    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.A9)2002        Apr 20, It was reported that recent flash flooding from torrential spring rains had killed at least 19 people.    (SFC, 4/20/02, p.A24)2002        Apr 25, Pres. Bush met with Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah, who told him bluntly that the US must temper its support of Israel. Abdullah gave Bush an 8-point proposal for Middle East peace.    (SFC, 4/26/02, p.A1)2002        Apr, The Saudi government cracked down on factories producing women’s cloaks that violated religious rules.    (SSFC, 5/5/02, p.A16)2002        May, Saudi diplomats clashed with the UN Committee Against Torture over whether flogging and the amputation of limbs are violations of the 1987 Convention Against Torture.    (SSFC, 5/19/02, p.A18)2002        Jun 11, Moroccan police arrested three Saudi nationals who were allegedly planning attacks against U.S. and British war ships in the Strait of Gibraltar. They were identified as: Hilal Jaber al-Assiri, Abdellah Ali al-Ghamdi and Zuher al-Tbaiti.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 6/11/02)2002        Jun 13, Pres. Bush met with Saudi Prince Saud al-Faisal and indicated that he would support the creation of a Palestinian state.    (SFC, 6/14/02, p.15)2002        Jun 18, Saudi Arabia announced its first al-Qaida-related arrests since Sept. 11 and said it was holding 11 Saudis, an Iraqi and a Sudanese man behind a plot to shoot down a U.S. military plane taking off from a Saudi air base.    (Reuters, 6/18/02)(AP, 6/18/02)2002        Jun 20, In Saudi Arabia John Veness, a British employee at Al Bank al Saudi al Fransi, was killed in a car bomb explosion in Riyadh.    (WSJ, 6/21/02, p.A7)2002        Jun, Iran transferred 16 al Qaeda suspects to Saudi Arabia.    (SSFC, 8/11/02, p.A13)2002        Jul 19,  In Saudi Arabia a passenger bus collided head on with a truck and caught fire outside the holy city of Mecca, killing 26 people and injuring 24 others.     [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 7/21/02)2002        Jul 22, Ahmed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz (43), the genial Saudi prince who dominated racing the last two years with Kentucky Derby winner War Emblem and 2001 horse of the year Point Given, died.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 7/23/02)2002        Aug 7, Saudi Arabia’s Foreign Minister Prince Saud said his country had made it clear to Washington, publicly and privately, that the U.S. military will not be allowed to use the kingdom’s soil in any way for an attack on Iraq. Saud said the longtime U.S. ally does not plan to expel American forces from an air base used for flights to monitor Iraq.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 8/7/02)(AP, 8/8/02)2002        Aug 13, The minaret at the Imam Ali al Uraidh Islamic shrine complex in Medina was demolished with dynamite.    (WSJ, 8/18/04, p.A1)2002        Aug 27, Pres. Bush met with Prince Bandar bin Sultan of Saudi Arabia, who said war with Iraq was not acceptable and that Saudi Arabia would not cooperate.    (SFC, 8/28/02, p.A1)2002        Sep 6, US officials reported that the assets of Wa’el Hamza Julaidan, alleged al Qaeda financier, had been frozen, and that he had been located in Saudi Arabia.    (SFC, 9/7/02, p.A8)2002        Sep 29, A Saudi prince signed deals worth $330 million to export Sudanese livestock and build a five-star hotel in Sudan’s capital.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 9/29/02)2002        Nov 3, Saudi Arabia said it would not permit bases on its soil in an attack against Iraq and would not grant flyover rights to US military planes even if the UN sanctions an invasion. Prince Saud later said a final decision had not been made.    (SFC, 11/4/02, p.A3)(SFC, 11/5/02, p.A7)2002        Dec 10, Saudi dissidents reported a new radio station, Sawt al-Islah (the Voice of Reform), had started broadcasting from Europe to push for reforms.    (SFC, 12/11/02, p.A14)2002        Dec 12, OPEC agreed to cut oil production by as much as 7%, well ahead of a seasonal decline.    (SFC, 12/13/02, p.B1)2003        Feb 8, Nearly 2 million Muslims converged on Mecca for the annual pilgrimage. Some of the faithful offered prayers to avert a U.S.-led war on Iraq.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 2/8/03)2003        Feb 11, In Mina, Saudi Arabia, 14 Muslim pilgrims were trampled to death when some worshippers tripped amid a jostling crowd during the devil-stoning ritual of the annual Hajj pilgrimage.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 2/11/03)(SFC, 2/12/03, p.A9)2003          Feb 18, Saudi Arabia said it has referred 90 Saudis to trial for alleged al Qaeda links. Another 250 were reported under investigation.    (SFC, 2/19/03, A10)2003          Feb 20, In Saudi Arabia a British defense worker was killed by Saud bin Ali bin Nasser, a Saudi citizen.    (SFC, 2/21/03, A1)2003        Mar 25, Saudi Arabia contacted the United States and Iraq with a peace proposal and was still awaiting a response.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 3/25/03)2003        Apr 28, The US moved an air operation center from Saudi Arabia to Qatar.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 4/29/03)2003        Apr 29, The US said it would withdraw all combat forces from Saudi Arabia.    (SFC, 4/29/03, A14)2003        May 6, Saudi authorities seized a weapons cache and foiled plans by suspected terrorists. At least 19 men were sought.    (SFC, 5/8/03, p.A1)2003        May 12, In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, multiple, simultaneous suicide car bombings at 3 foreign compounds killed 26 people, including 9 US citizens. The next day Saudi authorities linked Khaled Jehani (29) head of a 19-member al-Qaida team to the carnage. Ali Abd al-Rahman al-Faqasi al-Ghamdi, a senior al Qaeda figure, surrendered Jun 26. On Jan 8, 2004, 8 accomplices were arrested in Switzerland.    (SFC, 5/14/03, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/14/03, p.A1)(SFC, 6/27/03, p.A16)(SFC, 1/10/04, p.A3)(AP, 5/12/08)2003        Jun 7, The Saudi interior minister linked last month’s Riyadh bombings to the al-Qaida terror network in an interview, and his ministry identified 12 of the attackers.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 6/7/03)2003        Jun 15, The Saudi government said it foiled “an imminent terrorist” attack with an overnight raid on a bomb-filled, booby-trapped apartment in the holy city of Mecca that left five suspects and two security agents dead.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 6/15/03)2003        Jun, Ahmed Omar Abu Ali (22), a US citizen, was arrested in Medina as Saudi authorities were investigating a wave of bombings. He was convicted in 2005 in a Virginia federal court of conspiring with Al-Qaida. In 2008 a federal appeals court upheld the conviction, but ordered a new sentencing hearing. In 2009 he was sentenced to life in prison for plotting to kill Pres. George W. Bush.    (SFC, 11/23/05, p.A14)(SFC, 6/7/08, p.A3)(SFC, 7/28/09, p.A5)2003        Jul 3, In Suweir, Saudi Arabia, Turki Nasser al-Dandani, the top suspect wanted in the May 12 Riyadh suicide bombing, was killed along with three other militants in a gunbattle when police raided their hideout.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 7/3/03)2003        Jul 21, The Saudi government announced that police arrested 16 al-Qaida-linked terror suspects over the last 4 days and used tractors to dig up an underground arsenal: 20 tons of bomb-making chemicals, detonators, rocket-propelled grenades and rifles.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 7/22/03)2003        Jul 28, In Saudi Arabia 6 suspected militants were killed in a firefight with Saudi police, who raided a farm where they were hiding out. Two police also were killed.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 7/28/03)2003        Aug 10, Saudi police arrested 10 suspected Muslim militants following a gunfight after police tried to stop their cars outside Riyadh.    (WSJ, 8/12/03, p.A1)2003        Aug 11, Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah flew to Morocco for talks with King Mohammed VI about Iraq and the Palestinian territories.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 8/11/03)2003        Aug 15, Saudi police arrested at least 11 suspected militants and seized a large weapons cache in southern Jazan province that included rockets and explosive chemicals.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 8/16/03)2003        Aug 16, Former Ugandan dictator Idi Amin, blamed for the murder of tens of thousands of his people in the 1970s, died in a Saudi hospital where he had been critically ill for weeks.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 8/16/03)2003        Sep 2, Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Abdullah met Russia’s Pres. Putin on the first visit to post-Soviet Russia by a Saudi leader, aimed at coordinating oil exports and soothing Russian concerns about alleged funding of Chechen rebels by Saudi charities.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 9/2/03)2003        Sep 14, A Saudi importer of  some 58,000 Australian sheep was reported to be trying to give them away for free. The sheep had  been stranded for five weeks on the ship, the Cormo Express, due to a 6% infection rate for scabby mouth disease. Australia in 2002 had imposed tougher rules on ships exporting livestock to the Persian Gulf after it was revealed that 14,500 sheep had died from heat stress in one month. Some 5,700 sheep aboard the Cormo Express died before Eritrea accepted the animals.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 9/14/03)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.88)2003        Sep 14, Dhaher bin Thamer al-Shimry, a Saudi marijuana trafficker, was beheaded, bringing the number of beheadings in the kingdom this year to 41.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 9/14/03)2003        Sep 15, In Saudi Arabia a fire that swept through el-Haer prison in Riyadh and 94 were initially reported killed. 67 inmates died in the worst prison fire in Saudi Arabian history.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 9/16/03)(AP, 2/16/12)2003        Sep 23, A raid in Saudi Arabia on Islamic militants left three suspects dead, including Jubran Sultan al-Qahtani (aka as Zubayr al-Rimi), an al-Qaida figure wanted by the US.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 9/24/03)2003        Oct 13, The Saudi Cabinet announced that first-ever elections would be held for local councils in 14 municipalities throughout the country.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 10/14/03)2003        Oct 14, In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, hundreds took to the streets demanding reforms, the first large-scale protest in this conservative kingdom where demonstrations are illegal.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 10/14/03)2003        Oct 20, Saudi authorities announced the arrests of terrorist suspects and the discovery of large quantities of weapons and ammunition during raids around the kingdom.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 10/20/03)2003        Nov 3, Saudi police battled militants in the streets of the holy city of Mecca, killing two of the suspects and uncovering a large cache of weapons. Police arrested six al-Qaida suspects.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 11/3/03)(AP, 11/4/03)2003        Nov 6, In Saudi Arabia 2 suspected militants blew themselves up in Mecca when security forces tried to arrest them. A 3rd was shot to death by police during a raid in Riyadh.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 11/6/03)2003        Nov 8, In Saudi Arabia a suicide car bombing that devastated a Riyadh housing complex, killing 17 people and wounding more than 120. Officials pointed to al-Qaida terrorists as responsible.    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.A1)(AP, 11/8/04)2003        Nov 25, Saudi police killed 2 militants and seized a car bomb ready for detonation in post Ramadan celebrations.    (WSJ, 11/26/03, p.A1)2003        Nov 27,  Talal al-Rasheed, a prominent Saudi poet, was shot to death by attackers while on a hunting trip in Algeria.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 11/30/03)2003        Dec 6, Saudi Arabia issued the names and photos of its 26 most wanted terrorist suspects and increased protection around Western housing compounds in the capital.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 12/7/03)2003        Dec 7, Saudi security forces stormed a gas station and killed one of the country’s most wanted terrorist suspects and a second militant.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 12/8/03)2003        Rachel Ehrenfeld authored “Funding Evil: How Terrorism is Financed and How to Stop It.” The book sold 23 copies in Britain, over the Internet. She later lost a libel case concerning the book brought in the English High Court of Justice by Saudi businessman Khalid bin Mahfouz, who was awarded ₤100,000 ($160,000).    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funding_Evil)(Econ, 1/2/10, p.42)2003        Dore Gold authored “Hatred’s Kingdom: How Saudi Arabia Supports the New Global Terrorism.”    (WSJ, 3/27/03, p.D7)2003        Saudi Arabia’s Tadawul All-Share Index posted a 76% gain for the year.    (WSJ, 4/4/05, p.C18)2003        The Saudi-owned news channel al-Arabiya was launched from Dubai.    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.25)2003        A CIA report said that the Al-Rajhi Bank in Saudi Arabia had served as a conduit for terrorist transactions since at least the mid-1990s.    (WSJ, 1/26/07, p.A10)2003        Libya planned a covert operation to assassinate Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia according to 2004 testimony by 2 jailed participants.    (SFC, 6/10/04, A10)2003        Doctors at St. Vincent Medical Center in LA, Ca., performed a liver transplant on a Saudi citizen, who was 52nd on a transplant list. The Saudi Arabian Embassy paid $339,000 for the operation. In 2005 the hospital suspended its liver program after determining that the 2003 operation was improper.    (SFC, 9/28/05, p.A7)2004        Jan 8, Teams of Swiss police in 5 cantons arrested 8 suspected accomplices in the May 12 al Qaeda car bomb attack in Saudi Arabia.    (SFC, 1/10/04, p.A3)2004        Jan 29, In Saudi Arabia some 2 million Muslims from around the world gathered at the start of the annual Hajj.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 1/29/04)2004        Feb 1, In Saudi Arabia 251 Muslim worshipers died in a hajj stampede during the annual stoning of Satan ritual.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 2/2/04)(WSJ, 2/3/04, p.A1)2004        Mar 15, In Saudi Arabia authorities killed Khaled Ali Haj, a Yemeni, and Ibrahim bin Abdul-Aziz bin Mohammed al-Mezeini, a Saudi. Haj, who also uses the name Abu Hazim al-Sha’ir, was the “most dangerous” al-Qaida operative in the region. Haj was third on the government’s list of Saudi Arabia’s 26 most wanted militants.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 3/16/04)2004        Apr 10, Rania al-Baz, a popular Saudi TV host, was severely beaten by her husband. She suffered 13 facial fractures that required 12 operations. She allowed photos to be broadcast and opened discussions of ongoing violence against women in Saudi Arabia.    (SFC, 4/20/04, p.A6)2004        Apr 13, In Saudi Arabia militants near Unaizah opened fire on a police checkpoint at dawn, killing four police officers and fleeing in security agents’ cars.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 4/13/04)2004        Apr 19, Saudi police seized 2 explosives packed SUVs on a highway outside Riyadh. It the 3rd day in a row that such a seizure was announced.    (WSJ, 4/20/04, p.A1)2004        Apr 21, Two car bombs blasted the Saudi security headquarters, killing at least 4 people and wounding 148.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 4/21/04)(SFC, 4/22/04, p.A16)2004        Apr 22, Saudi security forces killed five wanted militants and were pursuing others after shootouts that spread over two days in the port city of Jiddah.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 4/23/04)2004        May 1, In Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, suspected militants sprayed gunfire inside the offices of Houston-based ABB Ltd., an oil contractor, killing at least six people — including two Americans and three other Westerners — and wounding dozens. Police killed four brothers in a shootout after a car chase in which the attackers reportedly dragged the naked body of one victim behind their getaway car.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 5/1/04)(SFC, 5/3/04, p.A7)(WSJ, 2/25/06, p.A1)2004        May 10, Saudi oil ministers called on OPEC to pump more oil.    (SFC, 5/11/04, p.A1)2004        May 20, Four suspected Saudi militants and a policeman were killed in a shootout the Saudi city of Buraida.    (Reuters, 5/21/04)2004        May 28, In Saudi Arabia suspected Islamic militants sprayed gunfire inside two oil industry compounds on the Persian Gulf, killing at least 10 people including one American.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 5/29/04)(SSFC, 5/30/04, p.A1)2004        May 29, In Saudi Arabia gunmen shot down security guards and entered 2 office complexes in Khobar searching for and murdering anyone looking western.    (Econ, 6/5/04, p.41)2004        May 30, Saudi commandos stormed the expatriate resort of Khobar to free up to 60 foreign hostages seized by Islamic militant gunmen who had attacked oil industry compounds, killing 22 people. Americans were among those killed and taken captive. 3 suspects escaped.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 5/31/04)(WSJ, 6/1/04, p.A1)2004        Jun 2, Saudi security forces killed two suspected militants linked to a weekend shooting and hostage-taking.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 6/2/04)2004        Jun 6, In Saudi Arabia Simon Chambers (36), an Irish cameraman working for the BBC, was killed in a shooting in Riyadh. A BBC correspondent was injured.    (SFC, 6/7/04, A8)2004        Jun 8, In Saudi Arabia an American citizen who worked for a US defense contractor was shot and killed in Riyadh.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 6/8/04)2004        Jun 12, In Saudi Arabia an American was kidnapped. An al-Qaida statement, posted on an Islamic Web site, showed a passport-size photo of a brown-haired man and a Lockheed Martin business card bearing the name Paul M. Johnson. Islamic militants shot and killed Kenneth Scroggs of Laconia, New Hampshire, in his garage in Riyadh.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 6/13/04)(AP, 6/20/04)2004        Jun 13, Saudi Arabia held a 3-day “national dialogue” in Medina on how women’s lives could be improved. On Jun 15, recommendations (19) were given to Crown Prince Abdullah.    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.26)2004        Jun 15, A Saudi al Qaeda group threatened to execute Paul M. Johnson Jr. within 72 hours unless fellow jihadists were released were released from prison.    (SFC, 6/19/04, p.A15)2004        Jun 18, A Saudi al-Qaida group said it killed American hostage Paul M. Johnson Jr., posting 3 photos on the Internet showing his body and severed head. Hours later Saudi security forces killed Abdulaziz al-Moqrin (31), a top al-Qaida leader, and 3 other militants in Riyadh.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 6/18/04)(AP, 6/19/04)2004        Jun 23, Saudi Arabia offered Islamic militants a limited amnesty, saying their lives would be spared if they surrendered but they would face the “full might” of state wrath if they did not. Prince Nayef said foreign residents may be allowed to carry guns.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 6/23/04)(SFC, 6/25/04, p.A10)2004        Jun 27, Saudi Arabia dispatched two planeloads of aid to Sudan’s war-torn western region of Darfur.    (AFP, 6/27/04)2004        Jun, The Saudi parliament passed legislation overturning a law banning girls and women from participating in physical education and sports. In August the ministry of education announced that it had no intention of honoring the legislation.    (SFC, 8/26/04, p.B1)2004        Jun, Fawaz al-Nashimi (aka Turki bin Fuheid al-Muteiry), an al-Qaida operative, was killed in a gunbattle with Saudi forces. He was involved in the May 29 attack inside two oil industry compounds. In 2006 an al-Qaida statement identified him as the would-be 20th hijacker for the Sep. 11 attacks.    (SFC, 6/21/06, p.A3)2004        Jul 1, Saudi security forces traded gunfire with militants in a Riyadh, killing one militant and wounding one. A police officer was killed and two were hurt.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 7/2/04)2004        Jul 12, A Sri Lankan woman was beheaded in the Saudi capital for murdering her employer. Bader el-Nisaa Mibari had been convicted of killing Sara bint Mohammed al-Haqeel, a Saudi woman, after trying to rob her with the help a male companion.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 7/12/04)2004        Jul 13, A confidant of Osama bin Laden (Khaled bin Ouda bin Mohammed al-Harby) surrendered to Saudi diplomats in Iran and was flown to Saudi Arabia.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 7/13/05)2004        Jul 16, A Saudi transport company said it had pulled out of Iraq to save the life of an Egyptian truck driver taken hostage by kidnappers who demanded the firm leave the country.    (Reuters, 7/16/04)2004        Jul 20, In Saudi Arabia the head of slain American hostage Paul M. Johnson Jr., who was kidnapped and decapitated by militants last month, was found by security forces during a raid that targeted the hideout of the Saudi al-Qaida chief. Two militants were killed.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 7/21/04)2004        Jul 29, In Saudi Arabia Colin Powell met with Iraq’s PM Alawi to talk about a Muslim peacekeeping force.    (WSJ, 7/30/04, p.A1)2004        Jul 30, Abdurahman Alamoudi pleaded guilty in a Virginia court to moving cash from Libya and involvement in a plot to assassinate Saudi Prince Abdullah.    (SFC, 7/31/04, p.A3)2004        Aug 4, The official Saudi Press reported that municipal elections across Saudi Arabia, the first such polls in decades, have been have been pushed back two months to November.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 8/4/04)2004        Aug 6, Saudi officials reported the capture of Faris Ahmed Jamaan al-Showeel al Zahrani, No. 12 on their list of 26 most wanted terrorism suspects.    (SFC, 8/7/04, p.A10)2004        Sep 1, In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 3 people were killed in a stampede to a newly opened Ikea branch.    (SFC, 9/2/04, p.C2)2004        Sep 2, In Saudi Arabia one policeman was killed and three others wounded in clashes with militants in a town northeast of Riyadh.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 9/3/04)2004        Sep 15, In Saudi Arabia Edward Stuart Muirhead-Smith (55) was killed at the Max shopping center in eastern Riyadh.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 9/16/04)2004        Sep 26, A French national was shot and killed in the Saudi Arabian city of Jiddah.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 9/26/04)2004        Sep 28, Saudi Arabia’s highest religious authority issued an edict barring the use of cell phones with built-in cameras, blaming them for “spreading obscenity.”    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 9/30/04)2004        Oct 16, Saudi security forces captured four suspected militants in the Khaleej neighborhood of Riyadh.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 10/17/04)2004        Nov 6, In an open letter to the Iraqi people and posted on the Internet, 26 Saudi scholars and religious preachers stressed that armed attacks launched by militant Iraqi groups on U.S. troops and their allies in Iraq were “legitimate” resistance.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 11/6/04)2004        Nov 8, Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Abdullah launched $8 billion in development projects in Mecca.    (WSJ, 11/9/04, p.A1)2004        Nov 16, Saudi police arrested 5 suspected militants in al-Qassim, 220 miles northwest of Riyadh, following a shootout that killed a policeman.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 11/17/04)2004        Nov 27, Saudi security forces killed a suspected militant in the Red Sea city of Jeddah.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 11/27/04)2004        Dec 6, In Saudi Arabia Islamic militants threw explosives at the gate of the heavily guarded US consulate in Jiddah in a bold assault, then forced their way into the building, prompting a gunbattle that left 9 people dead and several injured. In 2005 two AK-47 assault rifles used in the attack were later traced to Yemen’s Ministry of Defense.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 10/12/05)(AP, 12/06/05)2004        Dec 22, Saudi Arabia announced it was withdrawing its ambassador to Libya and ordered out Libya’s envoy in response to reports that Tripoli plotted to assassinate the Saudi crown prince.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 12/22/04)2004        Dec 28, In Saudi Arabia security forces killed three suspected militants in a raid on their hideout in Riyadh.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 12/29/04)2004        Dec 29, In Saudi Arabia insurgents bombed two security headquarters in Riyadh, setting off violence that left 10 attackers and one bystander dead.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 12/30/04)2004        Carmen bin Ladin authored “Inside the Kingdom: My Life in Saudi Arabia.” Carmen, the ex-wife of Osama’s older brother Yeslam, grew up in Geneva.    (SFC, 7/29/04, p.D8)2004        In Saudi Arabia women until this year were legally required to conduct business through a male agent.    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.86)2004        Saudi Arabia’s Tadawul All-Share Index posted a 85% gain for the year.    (WSJ, 4/4/05, p.C18)2005        Jan 1, In Saudi Arabia 2 men, a Pakistani and an Iraqi, were beheaded for smuggling in drugs.    [Sharia is Al Quaeda satanic imperialism saudi, do war vs Saudi Arabia]  (AP, 1/1/05)2005        Jan 1, Saudi Arabia was forecast for 2.3% annual GDP growth with a population at 25.7 million and GDP per head at $4,110.    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.94)2005        Jan 9, Saudi police killed four terrorists believed linked to al-Qaida after the militants fled their desert tent while throwing hand grenades at surrounding forces.  YouTube
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Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 3 people killed stampede

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