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List of elements Facts for Kids

Z Symbol Element Origin of name
Group Period Weight
u ()
Density
g / cm3
Melt
K
Boil
K
Heat
J/g·K
Neg Abundance
mg / kg
−999  !a  !a −999 −999 −999 −999 −999 −999 −999 −999 −999 1 H Hydrogen the Greek ‘hydro’ and ‘genes’ meaning water-forming 1 1 001 1.008(1) 0.00008988 14.01 20.28 14.304 2.20 1400 2 He Helium the Greek, ‘helios’ meaning sun 18 1 004 4.002602(2) 0.0001785 0.95 4.22 5.193 – 0.008 3 Li Lithium the Greek ‘lithos’ meaning stone 1 2 007 6.94(1) 0.534 453.69 1560 3.582 0.98 20 4 Be Beryllium the Greek name for beryl, ‘beryllo’ 2 2 009 9.012182(3) 1.85 1560 2742 1.825 1.57 2.8 5 B Boron the Arabic ‘buraq’, which was the name for borax 13 2 011 10.81(1) 2.34 2349 4200 1.026 2.04 10 6 C Carbon the Latin ‘carbo’, meaning charcoal 14 2 012 12.011(1) 2.267 3800 4300 0.709 2.55 200 7 N Nitrogen the Greek ‘nitron’ and ‘genes’ meaning nitre-forming 15 2 014 14.007(1) 0.0012506 63.15 77.36 1.04 3.04 19 8 O Oxygen the Greek ‘oxy’ and ‘genes’ meaning acid-forming 16 2 016 15.999(1) 0.001429 54.36 90.20 0.918 3.44 461000 9 F Fluorine the Latin ‘fluere’, meaning to flow 17 2 019 18.9984032(5) 0.001696 53.53 85.03 0.824 3.98 585 10 Ne Neon the Greek ‘neos’, meaning new 18 2 020 20.1797(6) 0.0008999 24.56 27.07 1.03 – 0.005 11 Na Sodium the English word soda (natrium in Latin) 1 3 023 22.98976928(2) 0.971 370.87 1156 1.228 0.93 23600 12 Mg Magnesium Magnesia, a region in Greece 2 3 024 24.3050(6) 1.738 923 1363 1.023 1.31 23300 13 Al Aluminium the Latin name for alum, ‘alumen’ meaning bitter salt 13 3 027 26.9815386(8) 2.698 933.47 2792 0.897 1.61 82300 14 Si Silicon the Latin ‘silex’ or ‘silicis’, meaning flint 14 3 028 28.085(1) 2.3296 1687 3538 0.705 1.9 282000 15 P Phosphorus the Greek ‘phosphoros’, meaning bringer of light 15 3 031 30.973762(2) 1.82 317.30 550 0.769 2.19 1050 16 S Sulfur Either from the Sanskrit ‘sulvere’, or the Latin ‘sulfurium’, both names for sulfur 16 3 032 32.06(1) 2.067 388.36 717.87 0.71 2.58 350 17 Cl Chlorine the Greek ‘chloros’, meaning greenish yellow 17 3 035 35.45(1) 0.003214 171.6 239.11 0.479 3.16 145 18 Ar Argon the Greek, ‘argos’, meaning idle 18 3 040 39.948(1) 0.0017837 83.80 87.30 0.52 – 3.5 19 K Potassium the English word potash (kalium in Latin) 1 4 039 39.0983(1) 0.862 336.53 1032 0.757 0.82 20900 20 Ca Calcium the Latin ‘calx’ meaning lime 2 4 041 40.078(4) 1.54 1115 1757 0.647 1 41500 21 Sc Scandium Scandinavia (with the Latin name Scandia) 3 4 045 44.955912(6) 2.989 1814 3109 0.568 1.36 22 22 Ti Titanium Titans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology 4 4 048 47.867(1) 4.54 1941 3560 0.523 1.54 5650 23 V Vanadium Vanadis, an old Norse name for the goddess Freyja 5 4 051 50.9415(1) 6.11 2183 3680 0.489 1.63 120 24 Cr Chromium the Greek ‘chroma’, meaning colour 6 4 052 51.9961(6) 7.15 2180 2944 0.449 1.66 102 25 Mn Manganese Either the Latin ‘magnes’, meaning magnet or from the black magnesium oxide, ‘magnesia nigra’ 7 4 055 54.938045(5) 7.44 1519 2334 0.479 1.55 950 26 Fe Iron the Anglo-Saxon name iren (ferrum in Latin) 8 4 056 55.845(2) 7.874 1811 3134 0.449 1.83 56300 27 Co Cobalt the German word ‘kobald’, meaning goblin 9 4 059 58.933195(5) 8.86 1768 3200 0.421 1.88 25 28 Ni Nickel the shortened of the German ‘kupfernickel’ meaning either devil’s copper or St. Nicholas’s copper 10 4 058 58.6934(4) 8.912 1728 3186 0.444 1.91 84 29 Cu Copper the Old English name coper in turn derived from the Latin ‘Cyprium aes’, meaning a metal from Cyprus 11 4 064 63.546(3) 8.96 1357.77 2835 0.385 1.9 60 30 Zn Zinc the German, ‘zinc’, which may in turn be derived from the Persian word ‘sing’, meaning stone 12 4 065 65.38(2) 7.134 692.88 1180 0.388 1.65 70 31 Ga Gallium France (with the Latin name Gallia) 13 4 070 69.723(1) 5.907 302.9146 2477 0.371 1.81 19 32 Ge Germanium Germany (with the Latin name Germania) 14 4 073 72.63(1) 5.323 1211.40 3106 0.32 2.01 1.5 33 As Arsenic the Greek name ‘arsenikon’ for the yellow pigment orpiment 15 4 075 74.92160(2) 5.776 1090 1090 887 0.329 2.18 1.8 34 Se Selenium Moon (with the Greek name selene) 16 4 079 78.96(3) 4.809 453 958 0.321 2.55 0.05 35 Br Bromine the Greek ‘bromos’ meaning stench 17 4 080 79.904(1) 3.122 265.8 332.0 0.474 2.96 2.4 36 Kr Krypton the Greek ‘kryptos’, meaning hidden 18 4 084 83.798(2) 0.003733 115.79 119.93 0.248 3 .0001 <0.001 37 Rb Rubidium the Latin ‘rubidius’, meaning deepest red 1 5 085 85.4678(3) 1.532 312.46 961 0.363 0.82 90 38 Sr Strontium Strontian, a small town in Scotland 2 5 087 87.62(1) 2.64 1050 1655 0.301 0.95 370 39 Y Yttrium Ytterby, Sweden 3 5 089 88.90585(2) 4.469 1799 3609 0.298 1.22 33 40 Zr Zirconium the Persian ‘zargun’, meaning gold coloured 4 5 091 91.224(2) 6.506 2128 4682 0.278 1.33 165 41 Nb Niobium Niobe, daughter of king Tantalus from Greek mythology 5 5 093 92.90638(2) 8.57 2750 5017 0.265 1.6 20 42 Mo Molybdenum the Greek ‘molybdos’ meaning lead 6 5 096 95.96(2) 10.22 2896 4912 0.251 2.16 1.2 43 Tc Technetium the Greek ‘tekhnetos’ meaning artificial 7 5 098 [98] 11.5 2430 4538 – 1.9 .0001 <0.001 44 Ru Ruthenium Russia (with the Latin name Ruthenia) 8 5 101.07(2) 12.37 2607 4423 0.238 2.2 0.001 45 Rh Rhodium the Greek ‘rhodon’, meaning rose coloured 9 5 102.90550(2) 12.41 2237 3968 0.243 2.28 0.001 46 Pd Palladium From the asteroid Pallas which had been recently discovered and named at the time. The asteroid was thought to be a planet when it was discovered 10 5 106.42(1) 12.02 1828.05 3236 0.244 2.2 0.015 47 Ag Silver the Anglo-Saxon name siolfur (argentum in Latin) 11 5 107.8682(2) 10.501 1234.93 2435 0.235 1.93 0.075 48 Cd Cadmium the Latin name for the mineral calmine, ‘cadmia’ 12 5 112.411(8) 8.69 594.22 1040 0.232 1.69 0.159 49 In Indium the Latin ‘indicium’, meaning violet or indigo 13 5 114.818(3) 7.31 429.75 2345 0.233 1.78 0.25 50 Sn Tin the Anglo-Saxon word tin (stannum in Latin, meaning hard) 14 5 118.710(7) 7.287 505.08 2875 0.228 1.96 2.3 51 Sb Antimony the Greek ‘anti – monos’, meaning not alone (stibium in Latin) 15 5 121.760(1) 6.685 903.78 1860 0.207 2.05 0.2 52 Te Tellurium Earth, the third planet on solar system (with the Latin word tellus) 16 5 127.60(3) 6.232 722.66 1261 0.202 2.1 0.001 53 I Iodine the Greek ‘iodes’ meaning violet 17 5 126.90447(3) 4.93 386.85 457.4 0.214 2.66 0.45 54 Xe Xenon the Greek ‘xenos’ meaning stranger 18 5 131.293(6) 0.005887 161.4 165.03 0.158 2.6 .0001 <0.001 55 Cs Caesium the Latin ‘caesius’, meaning sky blue 1 6 132.9054519(2) 1.873 301.59 944 0.242 0.79 3 56 Ba Barium the Greek ‘barys’, meaning heavy 2 6 137.327(7) 3.594 1000 2170 0.204 0.89 425 57 La Lanthanum the Greek ‘lanthanein’, meaning to lie hidden 6 138.90547(7) 6.145 1193 3737 0.195 1.1 39 58 Ce Cerium Ceres, the Roman God of agriculture 6 140.116(1) 6.77 1068 3716 0.192 1.12 66.5 59 Pr Praseodymium the Greek ‘prasios didymos’ meaning green twin 6 140.90765(2) 6.773 1208 3793 0.193 1.13 9.2 60 Nd Neodymium the Greek ‘neos didymos’ meaning new twin 6 144.242(3) 7.007 1297 3347 0.19 1.14 41.5 61 Pm Promethium Prometheus of Greek mythology who stole fire from the Gods and gave it to humans 6 145 [145] 7.26 1315 3273 – – .0001 <0.001 62 Sm Samarium Samarskite, the name of the mineral from which it was first isolated 6 150.36(2) 7.52 1345 2067 0.197 1.17 7.05 63 Eu Europium Europe 6 151.964(1) 5.243 1099 1802 0.182 1.2 2 64 Gd Gadolinium Johan Gadolin, chemist, physicist and mineralogist 6 157.25(3) 7.895 1585 3546 0.236 1.2 6.2 65 Tb Terbium Ytterby, Sweden 6 158.92535(2) 8.229 1629 3503 0.182 1.2 1.2 66 Dy Dysprosium the Greek ‘dysprositos’, meaning hard to get 6 162.500(1) 8.55 1680 2840 0.17 1.22 5.2 67 Ho Holmium Stockholm, Sweden (with the Latin name Holmia) 6 164.93032(2) 8.795 1734 2993 0.165 1.23 1.3 68 Er Erbium Ytterby, Sweden 6 167.259(3) 9.066 1802 3141 0.168 1.24 3.5 69 Tm Thulium Thule, the ancient name for Scandinavia 6 168.93421(2) 9.321 1818 2223 0.16 1.25 0.52 70 Yb Ytterbium Ytterby, Sweden 6 173.054(5) 6.965 1097 1469 0.155 1.1 3.2 71 Lu Lutetium Paris, France (with the Roman name Lutetia) 3 6 174.9668(1) 9.84 1925 3675 0.154 1.27 0.8 72 Hf Hafnium Copenhagen, Denmark (with the Latin name Hafnia) 4 6 178.49(2) 13.31 2506 4876 0.144 1.3 3 73 Ta Tantalum King Tantalus, father of Niobe from Greek mythology 5 6 180.94788(2) 16.654 3290 5731 0.14 1.5 2 74 W Tungsten the Swedish ‘tung sten’ meaning heavy stone (W is wolfram, the old name of the tungsten mineral wolframite) 6 6 183.84(1) 19.25 3695 5828 0.132 2.36 1.3 75 Re Rhenium Rhine River, in Europe (with the Latin name Rhenia) 7 6 186.207(1) 21.02 3459 5869 0.137 1.9 .0001 <0.001 76 Os Osmium the Greek ‘osme’, meaning smell 8 6 190.23(3) 22.61 3306 5285 0.13 2.2 0.002 77 Ir Iridium Iris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow 9 6 192.217(3) 22.56 2719 4701 0.131 2.2 0.001 78 Pt Platinum the Spanish ‘platina’, meaning little silver 10 6 195.084(9) 21.46 2041.4 4098 0.133 2.28 0.005 79 Au Gold the Anglo-Saxon word gold (aurum in Latin, meaning glow of sunrise) 11 6 196.966569(4) 19.282 1337.33 3129 0.129 2.54 0.004 80 Hg Mercury Mercury, the first planet in the Solar System (Hg from former name hydrargyrum, from Greek hydr- water and argyros silver) 12 6 200.59(2) 13.5336 234.43 629.88 0.14 2 0.085 81 Tl Thallium the Greek ‘thallos’, meaning a green twig 13 6 204.38(1) 11.85 577 1746 0.129 1.62 0.85 82 Pb Lead the Anglo-Saxon lead (plumbum in Latin) 14 6 207.2(1) 11.342 600.61 2022 0.129 2.33 14 83 Bi Bismuth the German ‘Bisemutum’ a corruption of ‘Weisse Masse’ meaning white mass 15 6 208.98040(1) 9.807 544.7 1837 0.122 2.02 0.009 84 Po Polonium Poland, the native country of Marie Curie, who first isolated the element 16 6 209 [209] 9.32 527 1235 – 2 .0001 <0.001 85 At Astatine the Greek ‘astatos’, meaning unstable 17 6 210 [210] 7 575 610 – 2.2 .0001 <0.001 86 Rn Radon From radium, as it was first detected as an emission from radium during radioactive decay 18 6 222 [222] 0.00973 202 211.3 0.094 – .0001 <0.001 87 Fr Francium France 1 7 223 [223] 1.87 300 950 – 0.7 .0001 <0.001 88 Ra Radium the Latin ‘radius’, meaning ray 2 7 223 [226] 5.5 973 2010 – 0.9 .0001 <0.001 89 Ac Actinium the Greek ‘actinos’, meaning a ray 7 227 [227] 10.07 1323 3471 0.12 1.1 .0001 <0.001 90 Th Thorium Thor, the Scandinavian god of thunder 7 232.03806(2) 11.72 2115 5061 0.113 1.3 9.6 91 Pa Protactinium the Greek ‘protos’, meaning first, as a prefix to the element actinium, which is produced through the radioactive decay of protactinium 7 231.03588(2) 15.37 1841 4300 – 1.5 .0001 <0.001 92 U Uranium Uranus, the seventh planet in the Solar System 7 238.02891(3) 18.95 1405.3 4404 0.116 1.38 2.7 93 Np Neptunium Neptune, the eighth planet in the Solar System 7 237 [237] 20.45 917 4273 – 1.36 .0001 <0.001 94 Pu Plutonium Pluto, a dwarf planet in the Solar System 7 244 [244] 19.84 912.5 3501 – 1.28 .0001 <0.001 95 Am Americium Americas, the continent where the element was first synthesized 7 243 [243] 13.69 1449 2880 – 1.3 .0001 <0.001 96 Cm Curium Pierre Curie, a physicist, and Marie Curie, a physicist and chemist 7 247 [247] 13.51 1613 3383 – 1.3 .0001 <0.001 97 Bk Berkelium Berkeley, California, USA, where the element was first synthesized 7 247 [247] 14.79 1259 – – 1.3 .0001 <0.001 98 Cf Californium California, USA, where the element was first synthesized 7 251 [251] 15.1 1173 – – 1.3 .0001 <0.001 99 Es Einsteinium Albert Einstein, physicist 7 252 [252] 13.5 1133 – – 1.3 0 0 100 Fm Fermium Enrico Fermi, physicist 7 257 [257] – 1800 – – 1.3 0 0 101 Md Mendelevium Dmitri Mendeleyev, chemist and inventor 7 258 [258] – 1100 – – 1.3 0 0 102 No Nobelium Alfred Nobel, chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer 7 259 [259] – 1100 – – 1.3 0 0 103 Lr Lawrencium Ernest O. Lawrence, physicist 3 7 262 [262] – 1900 – – 1.3 0 0 104 Rf Rutherfordium Ernest Rutherford, chemist and physicist 4 7 267 [267] – – – – – 0 0 105 Db Dubnium Dubna, Russia 5 7 268 [268] – – – – – 0 0 106 Sg Seaborgium Glenn T. Seaborg, scientist 6 7 269 [269] – – – – – 0 0 107 Bh Bohrium Niels Bohr, physicist 7 7 270 [270] – – – – – 0 0 108 Hs Hassium Hesse, Germany, where the element was first synthesized 8 7 269 [269] – – – – – 0 0 109 Mt Meitnerium Lise Meitner, physicist 9 7 278 [278] – – – – – 0 0 110 Ds Darmstadtium Darmstadt, Germany, where the element was first synthesized 10 7 281 [281] – – – – – 0 0 111 Rg Roentgenium Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, physicist 11 7 281 [281] – – – – – 0 0 112 Cn Copernicium Nicolaus Copernicus, astronomer 12 7 285 [285] – – – – – 0 0 113 Nh Nihonium Nihon, the main Japanese name for Japan; for research at the Riken (理研) institute. 13 7 286 [286] – – – – – 0 0 114 Fl Flerovium Georgy Flyorov, physicist 14 7 289 [289] – – – – – 0 0 115 Mc Moscovium Named after Moscow, capital of Russia 15 7 288 [288] – – – – – 0 0 116 Lv Livermorium Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in Livermore, California, U.S. 16 7 293 [293] – – – – – 0 0 117 Ts Tennessine US state Tennessee for work at Vanderbilt University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory there 17 7 294 [294] – – – – – 0 0 118 Og Oganesson Named after Yuri Oganesson, chemist involved in the synthesis of many elements 18 7 294 [294] – – – – – 0 0 9e99 ~z ~z 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99 9e99


List of elements Facts for Kids

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