reduce dietary sodium: Topics by Science.gov
De Keyzer, Willem; Dofková, Marcela; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; De Maeyer, Mieke; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ruprich, Jirí; Řehůřková, Irena; Geelen, Anouk; van ‘t Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; de Boer, Evelien; Ocké, Marga; Slimani, Nadia; Huybrechts, Inge
High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR). Participants from a subsample of the European Food Consumption Validation study (n 365; countries: Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic), aged 45-65 years, completed two 24 h urine collections and two 24-HDR. Reporting accuracy was calculated as the ratio of reported Na intake to that estimated from the urinary biomarker. A questionnaire on salt use was completed in order to assess the discretionary use of table and cooking salt. The reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was assessed using two scenarios: (1) a salt adjustment procedure using data from the salt questionnaire; (2) without salt adjustment. Overall, reporting accuracy improved when data from the salt questionnaire were included. The mean reporting accuracy was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·62, 0·72), 0·73 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·79) and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·85) for Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic, respectively. Reporting accuracy decreased with increasing BMI among male subjects in all the three countries. For women from Belgium and Norway, reporting accuracy was highest among those classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2: 0·73, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·81 and 0·81, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·86, respectively). The findings from the present study showed considerable underestimation of dietary Na intake assessed using two 24-HDR. The questionnaire-based salt adjustment procedure improved reporting accuracy by 7-13 %. Further development of both the questionnaire and EPIC-Soft databases (e.g. inclusion of a facet to describe salt content) is necessary to estimate population dietary Na intakes accurately.
Qin, Chaobin; Yang, Liping; Zheng, Wenjia; Yan, Xiao; Lu, Ronghua; Xie, Dizhi; Nie, Guoxing
The co-transport of sodium and glucose is the first step for intestinal glucose absorption. Dietary glucose and sodium chloride (NaCl) may facilitate this physiological process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To test this hypothesis, we first investigated the feeding rhythm of intestinal glucose absorption. Carps were fed to satiety once a day (09:00 a.m.) for 1 month. Intestinal samples were collected at 01:00, 05:00, 09:00, 13:00, 17:00 and 21:00. Result showed that food intake greatly enhanced sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) expressions, and improved glucose absorption, with highest levels at 09:00 a.m.. Then we designed iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets with graded levels of glucose (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) and NaCl (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%), and submitted to feeding trial for 10 weeks. The expressions of SGLT1 and GLUT2, brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) glucose transport and intestinal villus height were determined after the feeding trial. Increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, enhanced BBMVs glucose transport in the proximal, mid and distal intestine. As for histological adaptive response, however, high-glucose diet prolonged while high-NaCl diet shrank intestinal villus height. Furthermore, we also found that higher mRNA levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, higher glucose transport capacity of BBMVs, and higher intestinal villus were detected in the proximal and mid intestine, compared to the distal part. Taken together, our study indicated that intestinal glucose absorption in carp was primarily occurred in the proximal and mid intestine, and increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl enhanced intestinal glucose absorption in carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lara-Valderrábano, Leonardo; Rocha, Luisa; Galván, Emilio J
Propylparaben (PPB) is an antimicrobial preservative widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutics. Virtual screening methodologies predicted anticonvulsant activity of PPB that was confirmed in vivo. Thus, we explored the effects of PPB on the excitability of hippocampal neurons by using standard patch clamp techniques. Bath perfusion of PPB reduced the fast-inactivating sodium current (I Na ) amplitude, causing a hyperpolarizing shift in the inactivation curve of the I Na, and markedly delayed the sodium channel recovery from the inactivation state. Also, PPB effectively suppressed the riluzole-sensitive, persistent sodium current (I NaP ). PPB perfusion also modified the action potential kinetics, and higher concentrations of PPB suppressed the spike activity. Nevertheless, the modulatory effects of PPB did not occur when PPB was internally applied by whole-cell dialysis. These results indicate that PPB reduces the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons by modulating voltage-dependent sodium channels. The mechanistic basis of this effect is a marked delay in the recovery from inactivation state of the voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Our results indicate that similar to local anesthetics and anticonvulsant drugs that act on sodium channels, PPB acts in a use-dependent manner. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
… for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, … for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, …
Sharma, Shailendra; McFann, Kim; Chonchol, Michel; Kendrick, Jessica
The relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake with elevated blood pressure (BP) levels is unclear. We examined the association between dietary sodium and potassium intake and BP levels in 6985 adults 18 years of age or older with no prior history of hypertension who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001–2006). After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, diabetes and eGFR, there was no association between higher quartiles of sodium or potassium intake with the risk of a BP >140/90 mmHg or >130/80 mmHg. There was also no relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake with BP when systolic and diastolic BP were measured as continuous outcomes (p=0.68 and p=0.74, respectively). Furthermore, no association was found between combinations of sodium and potassium intake with elevated BP. In the US adult population without hypertension, increased dietary sodium or low potassium intake was not associated with elevated BP levels. PMID:24720647
Gijsbers, L; Dower, J I; Mensink, M; Siebelink, E; Bakker, S J L; Geleijnse, J M
We performed a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study to examine the effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in untreated (pre)hypertensive individuals. During the study, subjects were on a fully controlled diet that was relatively low in sodium and potassium. After a 1-week run-in period, subjects received capsules with supplemental sodium (3 g d(-1), equals 7.6 g d(-1) of salt), supplemental potassium (3 g d(-1)) or placebo, for 4 weeks each, in random order. Fasting office BP, 24-h ambulatory BP and measures of arterial stiffness were assessed at baseline and every 4 weeks. Of 37 randomized subjects, 36 completed the study. They had a mean pre-treatment BP of 145/81 mm Hg and 69% had systolic BP ⩾140 mm Hg. Sodium excretion was increased by 98 mmol per 24 h and potassium excretion by 63 mmol per 24 h during active interventions, compared with placebo. During sodium supplementation, office BP was significantly increased by 7.5/3.3 mm Hg, 24-h BP by 7.5/2.7 mm Hg and central BP by 8.5/3.6 mm Hg. During potassium supplementation, 24-h BP was significantly reduced by 3.9/1.6 mm Hg and central pulse pressure by 2.9 mm Hg. Pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were not significantly affected by sodium or potassium supplementation. In conclusion, increasing the intake of sodium caused a substantial increase in BP in subjects with untreated elevated BP. Increased potassium intake, on top of a relatively low-sodium diet, had a beneficial effect on BP. Arterial stiffness did not materially change during 4-week interventions with sodium or potassium.
Wu, Qin; Zaikowski, Lori; Kaur, Parmeet; …
Conjugated oligofluorenes are chemically reduced up to five charges in tetrahydrofuran solvent and confirmed with clear spectroscopic evidence. Stimulated by these experimental results, we have conducted a comprehensive computational study of the electronic structure and the solvation structure of representative oligofluorene anions with a focus on the pairing between sodium ions and these multianions. In addition, using density functional theory (DFT) methods and a solvation model of both explicit solvent molecules and implicit polarizable continuum, we first elucidate the structure of tightly solvated free sodium ions, and then explore the pairing of sodium ions either in contact with reduced oligofluorenesmore » or as solvent-separated ion pairs. Computed time-dependent-DFT absorption spectra are compared with experiments to assign the dominant ion pairing structure for each multianion. Computed ion pair binding energies further support our assignment. Lastly, the availability of different length and reducing level of oligofluorenes enables us to investigate the effects of total charge and charge density on the binding with sodium ions, and our results suggest both factors play important roles in ion pairing for small molecules. However, as the oligofluorene size grows, its charge density determines the binding strength with the sodium ion.« less
Fatahi, Somaye; Namazi, Nazli; Larijani, Bagher; Azadbakht, Leila
Although some earlier studies have indicated an association between dietary/urinary sodium and bone mass density (BMD), bone mass content (BMC), and the risk of osteoporosis (OS), findings are still conflicting. The aim of this study was to summarize the relation of dietary/urinary sodium with BMD, BMC, and the risk of OS. We conducted a systematic search up to April 2017 in PubMed/MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and Web of Science to find relevant studies. Articles with cross-sectional and cohort designs in which odds ratios (ORs), correlations (r), or beta coefficients were reported for the association between dietary/urinary sodium and OS, BMD, or BMC were included. Pooling 11 effect sizes with a total of 39,065 people showed that higher sodium consumption significantly increased the risk of OS (OR = 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.41; p = 0.026), with high heterogeneity among studies (I 2 = 68.0%; p = 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed significantly higher risk of OS in premenopausal women (OR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.01-1.69; p = 0.036), in participants with a mean age older than 50 years (OR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.04-1.28; p = 0.005), in dietary sodium intake subgroup (OR = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.19-1.77; p sodium and BMD (r = -0.46; 95% CI, -0.74 to -0.18; p = 0.02). We found a positive association between sodium intake and the risk of OS, while no association was found with urinary sodium. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between sodium intake and BMD. Due to high heterogeneity in this research, more studies are suggested.
Jablonski, Kristen L.; Gates, Phillip E.; Pierce, Gary L.; Seals, Douglas R.
Background Age and increasing systolic blood pressure (BP) are associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction, but the factors involved are incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial function is related to dietary sodium intake among middle-aged and older adults (MA and O) with elevated systolic BP. Methods Data were analyzed on 25 otherwise healthy adults aged 48–73 years with high normal systolic BP or stage I systolic hypertension (130–159 mmHg). Self-reported sodium intake was sodium, 73 ± 6 mmol/d) and between 100 and 200 mmol/d in 13 (9 M) subjects (normal sodium, 144 ± 6 mmol/d). Results Groups did not differ in other dietary factors, age, body weight and composition, BP, metabolic risk factors, physical activity and maximal aerobic capacity. Plasma concentrations of norepinephrine, endothelin-1, oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL), antioxidant status and inflammatory markers did not differ between groups. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was 42% (mm Δ) to 52% (% Δ) higher in the low versus normal sodium group (p dietary sodium intake (FMD mm Δr =−0.40, p sodium intake in the overall group (p ≥ 0.29). Conclusions Low sodium intake is associated with enhanced brachial artery FMD in MA and O with elevated systolic BP. These results suggest that dietary sodium restriction may be an effective intervention for improving vascular endothelial function in this high-risk group. PMID:19723834
Marcisz, Czesław; Marcisz-Orzeł, Magdalena; Straszecka, Joanna; Derejczyk, Małgorzata
A disturbed regulation mechanism of arginine vasopressin secretion in response to plasma osmolality and volaemia changes occurs in hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to determine plasma arginine vasopressin concentration in hypothyroid women under conditions of a low sodium diet and in an upright position. Twenty-six women with primary hypothyroidism and 24 healthy women (control group) were investigated. In all the patients, the plasma arginine vasopressin and serum sodium and potassium levels, as well as plasma osmolality, were measured first under basal conditions, i.e. after three days of a normal sodium diet (120 mmol sodium per day) in a horizontal position, and next after three days of a low sodium diet (10 mmol Na per day) in an upright position. In hypothyroid patients, the investigations were repeated after a euthyroid state as a result of L-thyroxine treatment had been attained. An increase of vasopressinaemia, measured under basal conditions as well as after three days of the low sodium diet, was shown in untreated hypothyroid patients compared to the control group. The arginine vasopressin plasma level normalised after a euthyroid state had been attained. As a result of the low sodium diet and the upright position, a significant increase of arginine vasopressin secretion was observed in the control group and hypothyroid women in the euthyroid state. No significant increase of this neuropeptide level in untreated patients was shown while applying the low sodium diet and upright position. Plasma osmolality and natraemia were decreased in the untreated hypothyroid patients. No correlation between vasopressinaemia and plasma osmolality was shown. The plasma arginine vasopressin level is increased in hypothyroid women, and does not change in the upright position under the influence of a low sodium diet.
Li, Xiuze; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Mengjun; Zhou, Chaojing
Myoclonus induced by etomidate during induction of general anesthesia is a common phenomenon. This prospective, randomized, saline-controlled clinical study was performed to evaluate the effect of parecoxib sodium pretreatment on the incidence and severity of etomidate-induced myoclonus. 60 patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II, aged 20 to 60 years, who were scheduled to undergo elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia, were allocated randomly into one of two groups to receive parecoxib sodium 40 mg intravenous (group P, n = 30) or the same volume of saline (group S, n = 30) 30 minutes before administration of etomidate (0.3 mg/kg). Myoclonus was assessed on a scale of 0 – 3. Postoperative side effects were recorded. The two groups were comparable with regard to baseline characteristics. The incidence of myoclonus was significantly lower in the parecoxib sodium group (11/30; 37%) than in the saline group (21/30; 70%) (p reduced by parecoxib sodium (p sodium 40 mg significantly reduced the incidence and severity of etomidate-induced myoclonus without significant side effects. .
Zhang, Xi; Wang, Jiawei; Li, Jibin; Yu, Yongfu; Song, Yiqing
The link between sodium and obesity has been accumulated over years. However, there has been few data reported on such sodium-obesity association from the general US population. This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that dietary sodium intake is independently and positively associated with obesity, central obesity, and measures of body composition among generally healthy US adults. We analyzed data on 9162 healthy participants aged 24 to 48 years (4813 men and 4349 women) with at least one valid diet recall from the 8-year National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006). Measures of body composition, including fat mass, lean mass, and total fat percent, were determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We assessed the association between dietary sodium and obesity and measures of body composition by using multivariable logistic regression models. After adjustment for total energy intake and other prespecified confounders, high sodium intake (>2300 mg/d) was significantly associated with elevated risk of obesity and central obesity as compared with moderate sodium intake (1500-2300 mg/d). On average, each 1-g/d increment in dietary sodium intake resulted in a 15% (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.33) increase in the risk of obesity and 24% (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.39) increase in the risk of central obesity. After stratification by sex and ethnicity, significant associations between sodium and obesity/abdominal obesity were apparent only among women and non-Hispanic whites. In addition, all measures of body composition were positively associated with sodium consumption levels. We found that high sodium intake is independently associated with elevated risk of obesity and central obesity in the general US adult population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jia, Qian; Ivanov, Ivan; Zlatev, Zlatomir Z; Alaniz, Robert C; Weeks, Brad R; Callaway, Evelyn S; Goldsby, Jennifer S; Davidson, Laurie A; Fan, Yang-Yi; Zhou, Lan; Lupton, Joanne R; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S
Both fish oil (FO) and curcumin have potential as anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory agents. To further explore their combined effects on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis, C57BL/6 mice were randomised to four diets (2 × 2 design) differing in fatty acid content with or without curcumin supplementation (FO, FO+2 % curcumin, maize oil (control, MO) or MO+2 % curcumin). Mice were exposed to one or two cycles of DSS in the drinking-water to induce either acute or chronic intestinal inflammation, respectively. FO-fed mice exposed to the single-cycle DSS treatment exhibited the highest mortality (40 %, seventeen of forty-three) compared with MO with the lowest mortality (3 %, one of twenty-nine) (P = 0·0008). Addition of curcumin to MO increased (P = 0·003) mortality to 37 % compared with the control. Consistent with animal survival data, following the one- or two-cycle DSS treatment, both dietary FO and curcumin promoted mucosal injury/ulceration compared with MO. In contrast, compared with other diets, combined FO and curcumin feeding enhanced the resolution of chronic inflammation and suppressed (P dietary FO, curcumin and FO plus curcumin combination differentially modulated the expression of genes induced by DSS treatment. These results suggest that dietary lipids and curcumin interact to regulate mucosal homeostasis and the resolution of chronic inflammation in the colon.
Kim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Kirang; Shin, Min-Ho; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl
The inverse relationships of combined fruits and vegetables intake with blood pressure have been reported. However, whether there are such relationships with salty vegetables has rarely been investigated in epidemiologic studies. We evaluated the relation of combined and separate intake of fruits, vegetable intakes, and salty vegetables, as well as sodium and potassium, with blood pressure among the middle-aged and elderly populations. The present cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort baseline survey was performed with 6,283 subjects (2,443 men and 3,840 women) and free of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Dietary data were collected by trained interviewers using food frequency questionnaire. The significantly inverse linear trend of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was found in fruits and non-pickled vegetables (81.2 mmHg in the lowest quintile vs 79.0 mmHg in the highest quintile, P for trend = 0.0040) and fruits only (80.9 mmHg in the lowest quintile vs 79.4 mmHg in the highest quintile, P for trend = 0.0430) among men. In contrast, sodium and sodium to potassium ratio were positively related with blood pressure among men (DBP, 78.8 mmHg in the lowest quintile vs 80.6 mmHg in the highest quintile, P for trend = 0.0079 for sodium; DBP, 79.0 mmHg in the lowest quintile vs 80.7 mmHg in the highest quintile, P for trend = 0.0199 and SBP, 123.8 mmHg in the lowest quintile vs 125.9 mmHg in the highest quintile for sodium/potassium). Kimchies consumption was positively related to DBP for men (78.2 mmHg in the lowest quintile vs 80.9 mmHg in the highest quintile for DBP, P for trend = 0.0003). Among women, these relations were not found. Fruits and/or non-pickled vegetables may be inversely, but sodium, sodium to potassium, and Kimchies may be positively related to blood pressure among men.
Chen, Shufeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Jing; Jaquish, Cashell E; He, Jiang; Lu, Xiangfeng; Yang, Xueli; Gu, Charles C; Hixson, James E; Liu, Fangchao; Rice, Treva K; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Gu, Dongfeng
The aim of this study was to comprehensively test the association of genetic variants in the natriuretic peptide (NP) system with blood pressure (BP) response to dietary sodium intervention in a Chinese population. We conducted a 7-day low-sodium intervention followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention among 1,906 participants in rural China. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each dietary intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the associations of 48 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6 genes of NP system with BP response to dietary sodium intervention. SNP rs5063 in the NPPA gene and SNP rs2077386 in the NPPC gene exhibited significant associations with BP response to low-sodium dietary intervention under recessive genetic model. For rs5063, absolute mean arterial pressure responses (95% confidence interval) to the low-sodium intervention were 1.31 (-1.08, 3.70) mm Hg for TT genotype and -3.74 (-4.01, -3.46) mm Hg for CC or TC genotype, respectively (P = 4.1 × 10(-5)). Individuals with at least one copy of the C allele of rs2077386 had significantly reduction in systolic BP during the low-sodium intervention compared to those with genotype GG with responses of -5.48 (-5.83, -5.14) vs. -2.76 (-3.52, -2.00) mm Hg, respectively (P = 1.9 × 10(-13)). These novel findings suggested that genetic variants of NP system may contribute to the variation of BP response to sodium intervention in Chinese population. Certainly, replication of these results in other populations and further functional studies are warranted to clarify their role in the regulation of BP and hypertension. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wong, Kristin M; Decker, Eric A; Autio, Wesley R; Toong, Ken; DiStefano, Garett; Kinchla, Amanda J
This project investigated the use of integrating mushrooms into beef taco filling as a means to reduce overall sodium for food service applications. Initial product development used physical characterization analysis (moisture, yield, color, and texture) to determine initial threshold of mushroom inclusion with minimal differences against an all-meat control. Increasing mushroom inclusion increased moisture and yield before draining but decreased yield after draining, lightness, redness, and texture. Results showed that inclusion under 50% by weight minimized physical attribute deviation from an all-meat control. Additional physical analysis investigated a variety of other factors (mushroom type, blanching, and particle size) to determine if other attributing mushroom characteristics would yield statistical similarity to the all-meat control. Results showed that a formulation containing up to 45% mushrooms can be integrated into beef fillings using un-blanched, white button mushrooms with small grind (1 to 5 mm), which maximized mushroom usage while minimizing differences from the all-meat control. Additional sodium analysis showed that varying salt level in formulations did not affect physical characteristics and mushroom inclusion could not significantly reduce overall sodium level. Optimized mushroom samples were then fielded in a hedonic sensory study to untrained consumers to evaluate product liking attributes (overall liking, aroma, color, flavor, juiciness, saltiness, and texture). Samples with overall liking scores that closely matched the control were then fielded in a paired-preference test to determine acceptance. Consumers preferred a 45% mushroom with reduced sodium taco filling compared to its full sodium counterpart in a food service fielded paired-preference sensory test. Although diet can significantly reduce the risk of heart disease, American consumers continue to eat detrimental diets high in fat and sodium. Products need to be made that
O’Halloran, Siobhan A; Grimes, Carley A; Lacy, Kathleen E; Campbell, Karen J; Nowson, Caryl A
The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K) ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial). The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male), mean age 3.5 (0.19) (SD) years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267) mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5) and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI) of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%), fruit (19%), and vegetable (14%) products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8), white bread/rolls (6.0), and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4). Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75) serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72) dairy, and 0.52 (0.32) serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits.
O’Halloran, Siobhan A.; Grimes, Carley A.; Lacy, Kathleen E.; Campbell, Karen J.; Nowson, Caryl A.
The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K) ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial). The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male), mean age 3.5 (0.19) (SD) years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267) mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5) and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI) of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%), fruit (19%), and vegetable (14%) products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8), white bread/rolls (6.0), and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4). Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75) serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72) dairy, and 0.52 (0.32) serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits. PMID:27529278
Schuldt, June; Levings, Jessica Lee; Kahn-Marshall, Jennifer; Hunt, Glynnis; Mugavero, Kristy; Gunn, Janelle Peralez
Excess sodium intake can lead to increased blood pressure. Restaurant foods contribute nearly a quarter of the sodium consumed in the American diet. The objective of the pilot project was to develop and implement in collaboration with independent restaurants a tool, the Restaurant Assessment Tool and Evaluation (RATE), to assess efforts to reduce sodium in independent restaurants and measure changes over time in food preparation categories, including menu, cooking techniques, and products. Twelve independent restaurants in Schenectady County, New York, voluntarily participated. From initial assessment to a 6-month follow-up assessment using the RATE, 11 restaurants showed improvement in the cooking category, 9 showed improvement in the menu category, and 7 showed improvement in the product category. Menu analysis conducted by the Schenectady County Health Department staff suggested that reported sodium-reduction strategies might have affected approximately 25% of the restaurant menu items. The findings from this project suggest that a facilitated assessment, such as the RATE, can provide a useful platform for independent restaurant owners and public health practitioners to discuss and encourage sodium reduction. The RATE also provides opportunities to build and strengthen relationships between public health care practitioners and independent restaurant owners, which may help sustain the positive changes made.
Han, Xikun; Hu, Zunsong; Chen, Jing; Huang, Jianfeng; Huang, Chen; Liu, Fangchao; Gu, Charles; Yang, Xueli; Hixson, James E; Lu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Liu, De-Pei; He, Jiang; Chen, Shufeng; Gu, Dongfeng
The aim of this study was to comprehensively test the associations of genetic variants of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-related genes with blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium intervention in a Chinese population. We conducted a 7-day low-sodium intervention followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention among 1,906 participants in rural China. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each dietary intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the additive associations of 63 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 NADPH oxidase-related genes with BP responses to dietary sodium intervention. Gene-based analyses were conducted using the truncated product method. The Bonferroni method was used to adjust for multiple testing in all analyses. Systolic BP (SBP) response to high-sodium intervention significantly decreased with the number of minor T allele of marker rs6967221 in RAC1 (P = 4.51 × 10-4). SBP responses (95% confidence interval) for genotypes CC, CT, and TT were 5.03 (4.71, 5.36), 4.20 (3.54, 4.85), and 0.56 (-1.08, 2.20) mm Hg, respectively, during the high-sodium intervention. Gene-based analyses revealed that RAC1 was significantly associated with SBP response to high-sodium intervention (P = 1.00 × 10-6) and diastolic BP response to low-sodium intervention (P = 9.80 × 10-4). These findings suggested that genetic variants of NADPH oxidase-related genes may contribute to the variation of BP responses to sodium intervention in Chinese population. Further replication of these findings is warranted. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com